1- Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion. (June 29, 2018). U.S Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 30, 2018,

1- Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion. (June 29, 2018). U.S Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 30, 2018,

1- Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion. (June 29, 2018). U.S Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 30, 2018, from https://www.epa.gov/ozone-layer-protection/health-and-environmental-effects-ozone-layer-depletion

This article shows that the Ultraviolet -B is a harmful radiation which one the results of ozone layer depletion that causes negative impacts on the earth surface. UVB radiation has negative effects on human health like skin cancer and changes of physiological plants growth. Also, it damages early stages of development fishes and shrimp on aquatic Ecosystem. This source’s information supports my section about the negative effects of Ozone layer depletion on environment and human health.


University of Leeds. (2015, February 16). New ozone-destroying gases on the rise; not controlled by treaty. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 2, 2018 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150216130241.htm

2- This infographic explains that Very Short-Lived Substances (VSLS) that production from natural and industrial have contributed to Ozon layer depletion. The authors found that the amount of chemicals of VSLS that are produced from industrials are not controlled by United Nations Montreal Protocol. United Nation Development Program is an international environment agreement between countries to protect the earth ozone layer depletion. The Montreal Protocol designed to decrease consumption of chemicals substances in the atmosphere. Scientists used a 3D computer model to determine effects of VSLS on Ozone and climate changes. The result of study found that dichloromethane chemical substance and other chemical substance contribute to decrease of ozone depletion and climate change.This information provides my section of the causes of Ozone depletion.

3- Ozone Depletion |. (2/12/2018). National Geographic. Retrieved July 2, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aU6pxSNDPhs.

The video shows that the pollution contributes to cause ozone layer depletion that it dangerous effects on earth surface . ozone layer is important to absorb ultraviolet harmful radiation that comes from the sun rays. Also, it explains the effects of chemical substance of Chlorofluorocarbon that found in refrigerators and plastic products on reduction ozone layer atoms. Industrials countries produce a huge amount of CFC substance in atmosphere. This video supports my essay to explain the causes of ozone layer depletion.

4- Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer ( this original article)


Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth’s surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives

· This is my summary

· This journal article shows that the negative effects of UVR on skin and its connection immunity system and skin cancer. The aim of study was to provide general background of skin cancer with important assessed statistics and mechanism of UVR induced of skin cancer and preventing behavior of skin cancer on human from harmful UVR. Also, it explains factors that effect of increasing of UVR that reaches to the earth surfaces, such as ozone depletion. In addition, the authors mentioned there were some recent modalities of therapy that use UVR can contribute to increase skin cancer.

· This study can be used in the essay to prove negative impacts of UVR on skin and mechanism of induced skin cancer. Moreover, the study explains that useful methods of behaviors to prevent skin cancer that produced from UVR radiation by minimizing sun exposure.


5- Effects of UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change (this is original article)


The health of freshwater and marine ecosystems is critical to life on Earth. The impact of solar UV-B radiation is one potential stress factor that can have a negative impact on the health of certain species within these ecosystems. Although there is a paucity of data and information regarding the effect of UV-B radiation on total ecosystem structure and function, several recent studies have addressed the effects on various species within each trophic level. Climate change, acid deposition, and changes in other anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants alter UV exposure levels in inland and coastal marine waters. These factors potentially have important consequences for a variety of aquatic organisms including waterborne human pathogens. Recent results have demonstrated the negative impacts of exposure to UV-B radiation on primary producers, including effects on cyanobacteria, phytoplankton, macroalgae and aquatic plants. UV-B radiation is an environmental stressor for many aquatic consumers, including zooplankton, crustaceans, amphibians, fish, and corals. Many aquatic producers and consumers rely on avoidance strategies, repair mechanisms and the synthesis of UV-absorbing substances for protection. However, there has been relatively little information generated regarding the impact of solar UV-B radiation on species composition within natural ecosystems or on the interaction of organisms between trophic levels within those ecosystems. There remains the question as to whether a decrease in population size of the more sensitive primary producers would be compensated for by an increase in the population size of more tolerant species, and therefore whether there would be a net negative impact on the absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide by these ecosystems. Another question is whether there would be a significant impact on the quantity and quality of nutrients cycling through the food web, including the generation of food proteins for humans. Interactive effects of UV radiation with changes in other stressors, including climate change and pollutants, are likely to be particularly important.

This is my summary

This study shows that the negative impacts of Solar UVB on the health of some types within these ecosystems. In fact, the negative effects of UVB radiation on total aquatic system structure and function that are including trophic level. Climate change, acid deposition, and changes in other anthropogenic stressors. The recent research revealed negative influences of the harmful UVB radiation on primary producer that including effects on cyanobacteria and aquatic plants. Also, UVB is environment stressor for many customers such as amphibians, fish, and corals. Many producers and consumers of marine system depend on the synthesis of UV-absorbing substances for protection and repair mechanism. To sum up, the decrease size of primary producers have negatives impacts on the absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide, nutrition recycling on web food such as production of protein for human and climate change and pollutants in aquatic ecosystem.

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