Students should become familiar with the American Psychological Association (APA) style guide for citations. It is the format used when citing sources in COMM 810 and other COMM courses. The sample reference list provided below should be used as a guide. It contains examples of the most common sources. Notations are provided in the right hand margin to point out features in each entry. Students should purchase a copy of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, at the bookstore.
Baxter, L. A. (1987). Cognition and communication in the relationship process. In R. Burnett, P. McGhee, & D. Clarke (Eds.), Accounting for relationships: Explanation, representation, and knowledge (pp. 192-212). London: Methuen.
Conville, R. L. (1991). Relational transitions: The evolution of personal relationships. New York: Praeger.
Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fidelity Investments. (1993). Fidelity Brokerage Services handbook (5th ed.). Boston: Author.
Cappella, J. N. (1994). The management of conversational interaction in adults and infants. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 50, 574-576.
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.
Fox, R. W., & Lears, T. J. J. (Eds.). (1993). The power of culture: Critical
essays in American history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapter in edited book
· Last name of author, then initials
· Initials of editors, then last names
· No quotation marks
· Only first word in chapter is in caps
· First word and following a colon are capitalized for book title
Book by one author
Book by two or more authors
· Ampersand between names
· Place of publication before publisher
Book edition other than the first
Journal article, one author
· No quotation marks around title
· No pp. for pages
Journal article, two or more authors
Editor or Compiler
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Heimlich, R., & Anderson, W. (2001, August). Development at and beyond the urban fringe: Impacts on agriculture. [Electronic version]. Agricultural Outlook, 5, 15-18.
Haskins, R. (2001). Giving is not enough: Work and work supports are reducing poverty. Brookings Review, 19, 13-15. Retrieved August 10, 2001, from http://www.brook.edu/PUB/REVIEW/REVDES.HTM
Fine, K. (2001, June). The question of realism. Philosopher’s Imprint, 1, Article 0001a. Retrieved August 10, 2001, from http://www.umich.edu/~philos/Imprint/browse.html
Brown, S. G., & David, S. (2000). Putting on a new face on self-sufficiency programs. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 1383-1384. Retrieved August 10, 2001, from PsycINFO database.
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Berkowitz, A. D. (2001, November 24). How to tackle the problem of
student drinking [Letter to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. B20.
Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.
APA Style Guide for References
(When electronic and print versions are identical)
(When electronic and print versions differ)
(Not otherwise available in print)
Articles or abstracts from Electronic databases
· Used to cite full-text articles or abstracts from fee-based Article databases such as Academic Universe (Lexis-Nexis), JSTOR, and PsycINFO
Daily newspaper, no author
Daily newspaper, discontinuous pages
Weekly newspaper article,
Letter to the editor
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Longergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000).
You can count on me [Motion picture]. United States:
Costa, P. T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988). Personality, continuity, and changes of adult life (Cassette Recording No. 207-433-88A-B). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Felmlee, D. H., & Greenberg, S. F. (1996, August). The couple as a dynamic system: A formal model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York, NY.
Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993).Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.).
[Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.
B. Nelson. (personal communication, May 6, 1996).
Vogler, E. (1999). Using technology in the classroom. Retrieved October 1, 2001, from www.tech.com/swiz/htm
APA Style Guide for References
· Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available