An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale




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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale


This educator’s guide is written to support using Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale in elementary, middle, and high school classrooms. Produced by the Consortium of Latin American Studies Programs (CLASP) on behalf of the Américas Award, it was written in 2014 by Katrina Dillon, a project assistant at the University of New Mexico.

CLASP founded the Américas Award in 1993 to encourage and commend authors, illustrators and publishers who produce quality children’s and young adult books that portray Latin America, the Caribbean, or Latinos in the United States, and to provide teachers with recommendations for classroom use. CLASP offers up to two annual book awards, together with a commended list of titles. For more information concerning the Américas Award, including additional classroom resources, please visit the CLASP website.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Classroom Relevance and Applications …………………………………………………………………………………..6 About Author and Illustrator Duncan Tonatiuh ………………………………………………………………………8 Author’s Note ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8 Lesson Plans and Activities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………10

Pre-Reading Activities ………………………………………………………………………………………………..10 Activity 1: Observation Charts ………………………………………………………………………….10 Activity 2: Picture Walk ……………………………………………………………………………………11 Activity 3: Genre Study Through Fable ………………………………………………………………11 Activity 4: Think, Pair, Share – Migrants, Immigrants, and Immigration ………………11 Guided Reading Questions ……………………………………………………………………………….12

Post-Reading Activities ………………………………………………………………………………………………14 Reflection on the Meaning of Fable ……………………………………………………………………14 Discussion Questions on the Meaning of Allegory ……………………………………………..14 Prompts for Extended Response ……………………………………………………………………….15

Interdisciplinary Connections …………………………………………………………………………………….16 Art, History, and Social Studies: Mesomamerican Codices as Social Justice ………….16 Geography, History, and Social Studies: Extending the Immigration Conversation .17

Complementary Literature and Film ………………………………………………………………………………………18 Children’s Literature …………………………………………………………………………………………………..18 Young Adult Literature ……………………………………………………………………………………………….22 Film ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….27

Complementary Teaching Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………29 Common Core State Standards ………………………………………………………………………………………………31 Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32

Images from the Book ………………………………………………………………………………………………..33

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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

OVERVIEW Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale Written and Illustrated by Duncan Tonatiuh Published 2014 by Abrams Books for Young Readers ISBN 978-1-4197-0583-0


Family, Community, Survival, Labor, Migration, Immigration, Injustice, Power and Corruption, Hispanic/Latino Culture, US-Mexico History, Spanish Language


A young rabbit named Pancho eagerly awaits his Papá’s return. Papá Rabbit left two years ago to travel far away north to find work in the great carrot and lettuce fields to earn money for his family. When Papá does not return home on the designated day, Pancho sets out to find him. He packs Papá’s favorite meal—mole, rice and beans, a heap of still-warm tortillas, and a jug full of fresh aguamile—and heads north. He soon meets a coyote, who offers to help Pancho in exchange for some of Papá’s favorite foods. They travel togeth- er until the food is gone and the coyote decides he is still hungry. . .for Pancho! Award-winning author and illustrator Duncan Tonatiuh brings to light the hardship and struggles facing families who seek to make better lives for themselves and their children by illegally crossing the borders.

READING LEVEL Grades 1-4/ Ages 6-9

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS (see page 31 for complete details)

K-12 Reading: Key Ideas and Details, Craft and Structure, Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity K-12 Writing: Text Types and Purposes, Production and Distribution of Writing

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“Tonatiuh’s great strength is in the text. No word is wasted, as each emotion is clearly and poignantly ex- pressed. The rabbits’ future is unknown, but their love and faith in each other sustains them through it all. Accessible for young readers, who may be drawn to it as they would a classic fable; perfect for mature readers and the classroom, where its layers of truth and meaning can be peeled back to be examined and discussed. An incandescent, humane and terribly necessary addition to the immigrant-story shelf.” —Kirkus Reviews, starred review

“In both prose and art, Tonatiuh expertly balances folkloric elements with stark, modern realities; Pancho Rabbit’s trip has the feel of a classic fable or fairy tale, with the untrustworthy coyote demanding more and more of him.” —Publishers Weekly, starred review

“The book shows the fragility of making a living, the desperation that many migrants experience, and the deep family ties that bind the characters. Classrooms studying the migrant experience will find plenty to discuss here.” —School Library Journal

“This will spark strong responses and needed discussion.” —Booklist

“Tonatiuh is so careful in weaving his allegory that his empathetic contemporary tale feels like age-old folk- lore, with simple but compelling text and a step-by-step escalation of the story through gripping, kid-under- standable challenges.” —The Bulletin of the Center for Children’s Books

AWARDS Américas Award Honorable Mention, 2014 Pura Belpré Author and Illustrator Honor Book 2014 New York Public Library’s Annual Children’s Books List: 100 Titles for Reading and Sharing 2013 Kirkus Best Books of 2013 Best Multicultural Children’s Books 2013 (Center for the Study of Multicultural Children’s Literature) Notable Children’s Books from ALSC 2014 Notable Books for a Global Society Book Award 2014

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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale


Duncan Tonatiuh’s Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale is one of those rare books that has value in elementary, middle, and high school classrooms. As was mentioned in Tonatiuh’s author’s note, the book can be read on two levels, both as a fable and as an allegory. As a fable, it’s accessible to young readers, while as an allegory, it’s appropriate for older readers who can analyze and discuss the multiple layers and the sociopolitical message of the tale.

With animals as the main characters, the fable-like nature of the tale allows students to engage with the migrant story both intellectually and emotionally, while at the same time separating it from its often emo- tionally charged and politically biased presentation in the media. Interestingly, taking the human face away from the story actually allows the reader to engage more fully with the reality of immigration, taking the conversation away from the abstract and focusing instead on the very real experience of the migrant. Through simple and clear language and illustrations, Tonatiuh conveys a great deal of emotion without ever becoming melodramatic.

Immigration is a complex issue, as Tonatiuh discusses in his author’s note. Yet media portrayal often is overly-simplified and at times one-sided. Immigrants are dehumanized, described as illegals and aliens. Broad stroke generalizations suggest that the majority are violent criminals, drug dealers or terrorists. It is here that Tonatiuh’s story can be quite powerful, offering a counter narrative to this depiction. This read- ing can be the bridge that allows students to delve into the complexity of the issue, really looking at all the factors that contribute to the need for people to leave their homes and travel to a new country, no matter the risk. As Tonatiuh writes:

In order to reach long-lasting solutions both the U.S. and the Mexican and Central American gov- ernments and societies need to be involved. On the one hand the immigrant’s home countries have to improve living conditions and create better opportunities for their citizens so they are not forced to leave. On the other hand the U.S. needs to admit its dependency on undocumented workers to do much of its manual and domestic labor and to provide legal and safe working opportunities for those seeking employment. Undocumented immigrants are a huge and important part of the U.S. workforce. According to a Pew Research Center study in 2005, 7.2 million undocumented workers were working in low skilled and often grueling jobs, like farming and construction. Only 31% of U.S.-born workers hold those occupations (Author’s Note).

The book easily lends itself to content specific connections through interdisciplinary activities. A number of geography, social studies and literacy standards can be addressed through the resources and suggested activities on immigration provided below. For example, older students can research the multiple push-pull factors that continue to encourage wide-spread migration throughout the Americas, and then prepare for a class debate in which they discuss the complexity of the issue.

Tonatiuh’s beautiful illustrations provide another way to make important connections across content areas.

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In Tonatiuh’s TEDTalk he explains how his own experience with immigrants of Mixtec heritage provided the inspiration for adapting the ancient Codices in his modern illustrations. These illustrations create the opportunity to discuss both Mixtec history and art as a medium for social justice.

In the last year, there has been huge growth through social media in the push to provide more diverse literature for our students. If this is the first you’re hearing about this, definitely check out We Need Diverse Books (hyperlink). This movement comes from the belief that (1) all children deserve to see themselves reflected in empowering ways in literature, and (2) all students should be culturally competent with an understanding of the diverse cultures, experiences and realities that make up our world. Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale accomplishes both of these things. If we consider that the 2011 Pew Hispanic Research Center reported that in 2008 there were 5.5 million children of undocumented immigrants in U.S. Schools (this information comes from Author’s Note), then it’s quite clear why we need a book that depicts the reality of immigration. Those 5.5 million students deserve books that tell their story, and their class- mates need books to help them understand that story.

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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale


About Tonatiuh

Duncan Tonatiuh (toh-nah-tyou) is an award-winning author and illustrator. Tonatiuh was born in Mexico City and grew up in San Miguel de Allende. He graduated from Parsons The New School for Design and from Eugene Lang College in New York City in 2008. His work is inspired by Ancient Mexican art, particularly that of the Mixtec codex. His aim is to create images that honor the past, but that address contemporary issues that affect people of Mexican origin on both sides of the border.

In addition to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale, Tonatiuh has published two other children’s books, both to notable acclaim. Diego Rivera: His World and Ours won the 2012 Pura Belpré illustration award and the 2012 Tomás Rivera Mexican-American Children’s Book Award. He first book, Dear

Primo; A Letter to My Cousin, received an honorable mention from the Pura Belpré Award in 2011 and was named an Américas Award Commended Title and a Notable Book for a Global Society List. His most re- cent book, Separate is Never Equal, published in May 2014, tells the frequently overlooked but seminal story of Sylvia Mendez, whose early education experiences in the 1940s resulted in the desegregation of Califor- nia schools.

Tonatiuh’s note to readers

Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale was published in May 2013 by Abrams Books for Young Readers. I am its author and illustrator. The book can be read on two levels. On the surface it is a story that reads like a fable, a bit like the Little Red Riding Hood or the Gingerbread Man. But the book is also an alle- gory of the terrible journey that undocumented immigrants go through in order to reach the U.S.

The book begins when a drought forces Papá Rabbit to leave and go North to find work so that he can pro- vide for his family. After some years Papá Rabbit is finally returning. His family prepares a big fiesta for him and they cook his favorite meal: mole, rice and beans, a heap of warm tortillas and a jugful of fresh agua- miel.

Everyone is excited to see him, but it gets late and Papá Rabbit does not come home.

In the middle of the night Pancho Rabbit, the eldest son, packs Papá his favorite meal and decides to look for him. Along the way he meets a sneaky coyote who offers to help him. They travel together on top of a train, they cross a river, they use a tunnel guarded by snakes and they cross the desert. Every time the coy- ote helps Pancho he asks him for some of Papá’s food until the food runs out and the coyote decides he still hungry …for Pancho!

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In Spanish the word coyote has two meanings: it is the name of an animal, but it is also slang for a person who smuggles people between the U.S. and Mexico border. Immigrants pay coyotes exorbitant fees for their help. They put their lives in the coyote’s hands and they have no guarantees that they will reach their des- tination. According to a 2010 Pew Research Center report, 11.2 million undocumented immigrants live in the U.S. An average of 150,000 unauthorized immigrants enter the U.S. each year. Most of them are from Mexico and Central America. They leavve their home countries due to poverty, violence and lack of oppor- tunities.

Central American migrants travel around five thousand miles on top of trains to cross Mexico. It is ex- tremely dangerous. Because of their undocumented status they are vulnerable and they are often the victims of gangs that steal from them and abuse them.

Some migrants never reach their destination. According to the American Civil Liberty’s Union and Mexico’s National Human Right’s Commission, between 350 and 500 migrants die every year. That number is most likely a lot higher because many migrants that die while trying to reach the U.S. are never found or claimed. Some drown while trying to cross the river that separates Mexico and the U.S. Many more die of dehydra- tion while crossing the desert.

It is not only young men that go on this journey. Women and children also go on this journey. There are an estimated 1.5 million undocumented children in the U.S.

Immigration comes in and out of the news cycle. But when it is discussed, it is usually in abstract terms. Instead of focusing on the experience of actual people, politicians discuss immigrants as a statistic in the economy. Or worse, when we hear of immigrants in the media, it is with negative and sensational tones. Undocumented immigrants are often equated with terrorists and drug traffickers, when in reality almost all immigrants are hard working people trying to provide for their families. In 2008, 94% of undocumented immigrant men of working age were employed compared to 83% of U.S. born men.

Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote has been well received by teachers, librarians, professors and parents. Some people have called the book liberal propaganda though. My book does not advocate for open borders or for a giant border fence protected by drones. Instead, it tries to focus on the terrible journey that migrants go through and the separation that families experience.

According to a 2011 Pew Hispanic Research Center report, in 2008 there were 5.5 million children of undocumented immigrants in U.S. Schools. I think it is important to make books that resonate with them, with their parents and that generate empathy and understanding from their classmates.

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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale


PRE-READING ACTIVITIES Before reading the book with students, you may want to introduce some of the important themes, activate any prior knowledge, and generate interest and anticipation through the following activities and/or discus- sion questions:

Activity 1: Observation Charts

As the title suggests, migration and immigration are important themes in the story. Observation charts are one way to introduce these themes and begin a classroom discussion.

Preparation: Find images through an internet search engine, magazines, or newspapers that represent migration and/or immigration that will be thought-provoking and interesting to students. You only need one copy of each image. Glue each image to the top of a large piece of butcher paper or poster board to create the observation charts. Write the following questions where they can be viewed by all students: “What do you see?” “What do you think is happening?” “How does this image make you feel?”

Process: 1. Explain to the students that they are going to be working in small groups. Each group will rotate

around the room to view and discuss each image. One person will be the secretary at each table. When looking at an image, students will spend at least one minute silently reflecting on what they see and the questions “What do you see?” “What do you think is happening?” “How does this image make you feel?” Then, students will discuss their thoughts in the small group. The secretary will record their re- flections and answers to the questions on the observation chart. Sticky notes can also be used to record the group’s thoughts. Explain to students that they will have a set amount of time at each image. When time is up, the teacher will give a signal and each group will move to the next image.

2. Divide students into small groups. Place an image and marker at various tables or stations in the class- room. Direct each group to the table or station where they will begin. Begin the activity. Continue rotating groups through the images until each group has seen each image.

3. Hang up all of the observation charts with comments. As a whole group, discuss each image, giving students time to share and respond to what they posted. Keep the charts posted throughout the reading and discussion of Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale. Allow students to revisit them, and discuss them as they think more about what the images represent.

This activity can also be used as an alternative version of a picture walk by using images from Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale for the observation charts. For images from the book, see the appendix.

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Note: To reuse the observation charts in different classes or subsequent years, laminate each chart and use sticky notes for students to record their thoughts and reflections.

Activity 2: Picture Walk

Process: 1. Pique students’ interest, activate prior knowledge, and introduce the book through a picture walk. 2. Show students the front and back cover of the book. Ask them to predict what they think the story will

be about. Then, slowly flip through the pages of the book without reading any of the words. Ask stu- dents questions about each picture they see, guiding them to make inferences based upon what they see. Focus on who, what, when, where, why and how questions such as: “What is happening here?” “What will happen next?” “Who do you think this is?” “How does this character feel?” “How does this picture make you feel?” “Where does the story take place?” “How do you think the story will end?”

3. Once students have read the book, return to their thoughts and predictions, comparing them to the actual events of the story.

Activity 3: Genre Study Through Fable

Process: 1. Preview or review the definition of a fable with students and prepare them to look for elements of a fable

in Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale using the following questions: • What is a fable? (Fable: A short story, typically with animals as characters, that conveys a moral.) • Is a fable fiction or non-fiction? How can do we know? • Can you think of any other stories that you’ve read that are fables or allegories? Have we read any

other fables in class? What lessons did we learn from those stories? • As we read Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale, be thinking about how this fable com-

pares to others. How is it like other fables we’ve read? How is it different?

Activity 4: Think, Pair, Share: Migrants, Immigrants and Immigration

Process: 1. Access prior knowledge and engage students in a discussion of relevant themes of Pancho Rabbit and the

Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale. 2. Write the words “immigrant,” “migrant,” and “immigration” on three separate large pieces of butcher

paper. Hang the papers where they can be seen by the whole class. 3. Read each word out loud to the class. Ask students to think about the words.

• What do they think of when they hear the three words?

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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

• What pictures come to mind? • What feelings? • What do they associate with these words?

4. Ask students to write down their thoughts about these questions. 5. Once students have written their thoughts down, have them share at least one of their thoughts with a

partner. 6. Ask for volunteers to share at least one of their thoughts with the class. As they share, write down their

response on the appropriate butcher paper poster. 7. Once the class has read Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale, return to the posters. Ask

students if they would add anything new to the posters now that they’ve read the fable. How did their thoughts compare to what was presented in the story?

Guided Reading Questions

1. Why do the animals leave to go north? What do they hope they will be able to do? • Make a personal connection: Have you ever known anyone who had to leave their home, city, or

country to find work? 2. Where do you think the story is set? Use details from the story and illustrations to explain your answer. 3. What does the Spanish word fiesta mean? Encourage students to use context clues in surrounding

sentences and illustrations to determine the meaning if they are unfamiliar with Spanish. 4. How does Papá Rabbit’s family prepare to celebrate his return from El Norte? What kinds of food, deco-

rations and music do they prepare? • Make a personal connection: What kinds of things do your family and friends do to celebrate an

important occasion? • Make a prediction: What do you think could have kept Señor Rabbit from arriving home? • Make a personal connection: How would you have felt if you were Pancho Rabbit? Would you

have been worried? 5. What does Pancho Rabbit pack for his trip to find his father? Use context clues to determine the mean-

ing of mochila. 6. Do you think it’s a good idea for Pancho Rabbit to leave on his own? Why or why not? What could hap-

pen to Pancho Rabbit while he’s travelling alone? 7. Who agrees to help Pancho Rabbit get to El Norte to find his father? Make an inference: Do you think

the coyote is trustworthy? Why or why not? • Make a prediction: What does Pancho Rabbit have to give the coyote in exchange for his help?

Why does he decide to give this to the coyote? Do you think this is the only thing the coyote will ask for?

8. What must Pancho Rabbit and the coyote do on the first part of the trip? Is this safe? 9. What do Pancho Rabbit and the coyote have to do once they jump off the train? 10. What does Pancho Rabbit have to trade in order to get through the tunnel?

• Make a personal connection: Imagine you are crawling through the tunnel with Pancho Rabbit.

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What is it like? How do you feel? 11. What is it like crossing the desert? How does the temperature of the desert change at night? 12. What happens when the coyote realizes that Pancho Rabbit has no more food to give him? 13. Who saves Pancho Rabbit? How did they know that Pancho Rabbit was in trouble? 14. What kept Papá Rabbit, Señor Rooster and Señor Ram from returning home? What was taken from

them? 15. Think about what happened both to Pancho Rabbit and Papá Rabbit. Is it easy or safe to cross the desert

to El Norte? What is the return trip like? What are the risks of these trips?

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Reflection on the Meaning of Fable

Process: 1. What elements of Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale make it a fable?

• In what ways do the animals act like people? • What is the main problem in the story?

2. All fables have a moral or lesson to be learned. What do you think is the moral of Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale? Explain your answer using details from the story.

3. Compare and contrast the story with other fables you’ve read. Choose one fable you remember. Create a Venn Diagram to chart your information. What does the other fable have in common with Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale? How are the two fables different? Using your Venn Diagram, write a short essay comparing and contrasting the two fables.

Discussion Questions on the Meaning of Allegory

Process: 1. While Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale is a fable, it is also an allegory. Review the defini-

tion of an allegory with students (Allegory: a story, poem or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically the characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation). Reread the story looking for the elements of allegory. Discuss the following questions:

• What political and/or historical situation is represented in the story? • What groups are represented by the different characters in the story? Why choose a coyote as the

character to guide Pancho Rabbit to El Norte? Are coyotes generally good or bad characters in stories and cartoons? What is the double meaning of coyote? Who do you think the snakes repre- sent? Look at their caps. What do these remind you of? Why choose snakes as the guards of the border? Are snakes generally trustworthy characters in stories and cartoons?

• Who do Papá Rabbit, Señor Rooster and Señor Ram represent? Pancho Rabbit? Use details from the story and illustrations to support and explain your answers.

2. What is the hidden meaning or the moral of the allegory? What larger statement or message do you think Tonatiuh is trying to make through the allegory?

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Prompts for Extended Response

Process: Retell the sequence of events: Describe the different parts of Pancho Rabbit’s trip to find his father. What different things must he do in order to get to El Norte? Is this a dangerous trip to take? 1. If Pancho’s family does have to move to the U.S., what advice would you give him that would help him

adapt to life in the U.S.? Imagine Pancho joins your class. How would you help him adjust? What things may be difficult for him to adapt to? What could you do to make the transition easier? What do you think Pancho would be feeling during his first week as a member of your class, in a new school, in a new country?

2. Think about what you’ve read or seen in the media or heard friends or family say about immigrants. In what ways are immigrants presented in the media? In what ways does the story counter what is often presented in the media about immigration and migrants? What are the reasons given for why people immigrate to the United States?

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Art, History, and Social Studies: Mesomamerican Codices as Social Justice

Lesson plans pending. Coming soon!

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Geography, History, and Social Studies: Extending the Immigration Conversation

Lesson plans pending. Coming soon!

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An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale


Children’s Literature

A Movie in My Pillow/ Una película en mi almohada written by Jorge Argueta and illustrated by Elizabeth Gómez. Lee and Low Books, 2007. 32 pgs. ISBN 9780892392193

A young boy with two homelands and a delightful sense of wonder comes to life in Jorge Argue- ta’s first collection of poems for children. Young Jorgito lives in San Francisco’s Mission District, but he hasn’t forgotten his native El Salvador. He recalls the volcanoes, the tasty cornmeal pupu- sas, and his grandmother’s stories. As he changes from timid newcomer to seasoned city dweller, Jorgito’s memories and new adventures form a patchwork of dreams — the movie in his pillow — that is perfectly suited to his new bicultural identity. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

Amelia’s Road written by Linda Jacobs Altman and illustrated by Enrique O. Sanchez. Lee and Low Books, 1995. 32 pages. ISBN 9781880000274

Amelia Luisa Martinez hates roads. Los caminos, the roads, take her migrant worker family to fields where they labor all day, to schools where no one knows Amelia’s name, and to bleak cabins that are not home. Then one day, Amelia discovers an “accidental road.” At its end she finds an amazing old tree reminiscent of the one in her dreams. Its stately sense of permanence inspires her to put her own roots down in a very special way. The richly colored illustrations bring to life the landscape of California’s Central Valley farmland. Amelia’s Road is an inspirational tale about the importance of home. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

Classroom Resources: Classroom Guide for Amelia’s Road by Lee & Low Books

First Day in Grapes written by L. King Perez and illustrated by Robert Casilla. Lee and Low Books, 2002. 32 pgs. ISBN 9781620141908

All year long Chico and his family move up and down the state of California picking fruits and vegetables. Every September they pick grapes and Chico starts at a new school again. Often other children pick on him — maybe because he is always new or maybe because he speaks Spanish sometimes. Chico’s first day in third grade turns out to be different. When the fourth-grade bul- lies confront Chico in the lunchroom, he responds wisely with strengths of his own. Readers of all backgrounds will relate to Chico’s bravery and the creative way he finds to resolve conflict. This story of personal triumph is a testament to the inner strength in all of us. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

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Classroom Resources: Teacher’s Guide for First Day in Grapes produced by Lee & Low Books.

From North to South/ Del norte al sur written by René Colato Laínez and illustrated by Joe Cepeda. Lee and Low Books, 2014. 32 pgs. ISBN 9780892393046.

Near the border, the cars began to move very slowly. “Papá, go fast. I want to see Mamá,” I said. José loves helping Mamá in the garden outside their home in California. But when Mamá is sent back to Mexico for not having proper papers, José and his Papá face an uncertain future. What will it be like to visit Mamá in Tijuana? When will Mamá be able to come home? Award-winning children’s book author René Colato Laínez tackles the difficult and timely subject of family sep- aration with exquisite tenderness. René is donating a portion of his royalties to El Centro Madre Assunta, a refuge for women and children who are waiting to be reunited with their families up north. Joe Cepeda’s bright and engaging illustrations bring this story of hope to vivid life. (Grades 1 and up).

Home at Last written by Susan Middleton Elya and illustrated by Felipe Davalos. Lee and Low Books, 2006. 32 pages. ISBN 9781584302728.

Ana Patino is adjusting well to her new life in the United States, but her mother is having a difficult time because she doesn’t speak English. When Ana’s baby brother falls ill, Mama tries to get help, but no one can understand her. Now convinced of the need to learn the native lan- guage, Mama agrees to take English lessons. As her knowledge of the English language grows, so does her sense of confidence and belonging. Susan Middleton Elya’s sympathetic tale of a moth- er-daughter bond and overcoming adversity is brought to life by the vivid illustrations of Felipe Davalos. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

Classroom Resources: Teacher’s Guide for Home at Last produced by Lee & Low Books

My Diary from Here to There / Mi diario de aqui hasta allá written by Amada Irma Pérez and illustrated by Maya Christina Gonzalez. Lee and Low Books, 2009. 32 pages. ISBN 9780892392308

One night, young Amada overhears her parents whisper of moving from Mexico to the other side of the border—to Los Angeles, where greater opportunity awaits. As she and her family make their journey north, Amada records her fears, hopes, and dreams for their lives in the United States in her diary. How can she leave her best friend behind? What if she can’t learn English? What if her family never returns to Mexico? From Juárez to Mexicali to Tijuana to Los Angeles, Amada learns that with her family’s love and her belief in herself, she can make any journey and weather any change—here, there, anywhere. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

The Storyteller’s Candle/ La velita de los cuentos written by Lucía González and illustrated by Lulu Delacre. Lee and Low Books, 2008. 32 pages. ISBN 9780892392223

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The winter of 1929 feels especially cold to cousins Hildamar and Santiago—they arrived in New York City from sunny Puerto Rico only months before. Their island home feels very far away indeed, especially with Three Kings’ Day rapidly approaching. But then a magical thing happened. A visitor appears in their class, a gifted storyteller and librarian by the name of Pura Belpré. She opens the children’s eyes to the public library and its potential to be the living, breathing heart of the community. The library, after all, belongs to everyone—whether you speak Spanish, English, or both.The award-winning team of Lucía González and Lulu Delacre have crafted an homage to Pura Belpré, New York City’s first Latina librarian. Through her vision and dedication, the warmth of Puerto Rico came to the island of Manhattan in a most unexpected way. (Grades Kin- dergarten and up)

Classroom Resources: Classroom Guide for The Storyteller’s Candle produced by Lee & Low Books

The Upside Down Boy/El niño de cabeza written by Juan Felipe Herrera and illustrated by Elizabeth Gomez. Lee and Low Books, 2006. 32 pages. ISBN 9780892392179.

The Upside Down Boy is award-winning poet Juan Felipe Herrera’s engaging memoir of the year his migrant family settled down so that he could go to school for the first time. Juanito is be- wildered by the new school, and he misses the warmth of country life. Everything he does feels upside down. He eats lunch when it’s recess; he goes out to play when it’s time for lunch; and his tongue feels like a rock when he tries to speak English. But a sensitive teacher and loving family help him to find his voice and make a place for himself in this new world through poetry, art, and music. Juan Felipe Herrera’s playful language and the colorful, magical art of Elizabeth Gómez capture the universal experience of children entering a new school feeling like strangers in a world that seems upside down-at first. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

When This World Was New written by D. H. Figueredo and illustrated by Enrique O. Sanchez. Lee and Low Books, 1999. 32 pages. ISBN 9781584301738.

It was Danilito’s first day in America. He and his parents have just made a long, exhausting move from the Caribbean to New York City. The ocean and the palm trees he is familiar with are now replaced by tall buildings and crowded streets. Danilito is scared. He has heard that some Amer- icans are not friendly to foreigners. In addition, he does not speak any English. His parents have worries, too. They will have to find new jobs, a new home, and adjust to the new surroundings. This was going to be their first cold winter. Danilito’s worries disappear the next morning when he wakes up and Papá leads him on a magical trip of discovery. D.H. Figueredo, in his picture book debut, brings us a gentle and uplifting story of coming to America, and Enrique O. Sanchez captures the loving images of a boy embracing his new home and finding a special bond with his family. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

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Xochitl and the Flowers / Xóchitl, la niña de las flores by Jorge Argueta and illustrated by Carl Angel. Chil- dren’s Book Press, 2008. 32 pages. ISBN 9780892392247

Miles away from their home in El Salvador, Xochitl (SOH-cheel) and her family make a new home in the United States, but nothing is the same. Xochitl mourns a lovely garden and her fam- ily’s small flower business, all left behind. Selling flowers on the street soon provides more than income for the Flores family: they begin to make friends with local storeowners and neighbors. But it is not until the family decides to start a nursery in its backyard that Xochitl begins to learn the true value of community in their adopted country. Basing his narrative on real-life events, prize-winning poet Jorge Argueta has crafted a tender, poetic, and moving story about a family’s determination to set down roots and about their child’s blooming among friends and neighbors. Artist Carl Angel’s authentic and brilliant artwork splendidly documents this quintessentially American immigration story. (Grades Kindergarten and up)

Classroom Resources: Teacher’s Guide to Xochitl and the Flowers produced by Children’s Book Press and Lee & Low Books

Calling the Doves / El canto de las palomas by Juan Felipe Herrera and illustrated by Elly Simmons. Lee and Low Books 2001. 32 pages. ISBN 9780892391660

Calling the Doves is poet Juan Felipe Herrera’s story of his migrant farmworker childhood. In de- lightful and lyrical language, he recreates the joy of eating breakfast under the open sky, listening to Mexican songs in the little trailer house his father built, and celebrating with other families at a fiesta in the mountains. He remembers his mother’s songs and poetry, and his father’s stories and his calling the doves. For Juan Felipe, the farmworker road was also the beginning of his personal road to becoming a writer. (Grades 1 and up)

My Shoes and I written by René Colato Laínez and illustrated by Fabricio Vanden Broeck. Boyds Mills Press, 2010. 32 pages. ISBN 9781590783856

A timely and inspiring story. Mario is leaving his home in El Salvador. With his father by his side, he is going north to join his mother, who lives in the United States. She has sent Mario a new pair of shoes. He will need good shoes because the journey north will be long and hard. He and his father will cross the borders of three countries. They will walk for miles, ride buses, climb moun- tains, and cross a river. Mario has faith in his shoes. He believes they will take him anywhere. On this day, they will take him to the United States, where his family will be reunited. (Grades Kin- dergarten-4)

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Young Adult Literature

La línea by Ann Jaramillo. Roaring Brook Press, 2006. 129 pgs. ISBN 9781596431546

Miguel has dreamed of joining his parents in California since the day they left him behind in Mexico six years, eleven months, and twelve days ago. On the morning of his fifteenth birthday, Miguel’s wait is over. Or so he thinks. The trip north to the border—la línea—is fraught with dangers. Thieves. Border guards. And a grueling, two-day trek across the desert. It would be hard enough to survive alone. But it’s almost impossible with his tagalong sister in tow. Their money gone and their hopes nearly dashed, Miguel and his sister have no choice but to hop the infamous mata gente as it races toward the border. As they cling to the roof of the speeding train, they hold onto each other, and to their dreams. But they quickly learn that you can’t always count on dreams—even the ones that come true. (Grades 7 and up)

The Circuit / Cajas de cartón by Francisco Jiménez. Houghton-Mifflin, 1997. 134 pgs. ISBN: 9780826317971

After dark in a Mexican border town, a father holds open a hole in a wire fence as his wife and two small boys crawl through. So begins life in the United States for many people every day. And so begins this collection of twelve autobiographical stories by Santa Clara University professor Francisco Jiménez, who at the age of four illegally crossed the border with his family in 1947. “The Circuit,” the story of young Panchito and his trumpet, is one of the most widely antholo- gized stories in Chicano literature. At long last, Jiménez offers more about the wise, sensitive little boy who has grown into a role model for subsequent generations of immigrants. These inde- pendent but intertwined stories follow the family through their circuit, from picking cotton and strawberries to topping carrots–and back again–over a number of years. As it moves from one labor camp to the next, the little family of four grows into ten. Impermanence and poverty define their lives. But with faith, hope, and back-breaking work, the family endures. (Grades 6 and up)

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to The Circuit written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute | Lesson Plans Novel for The Circuit produced by Santa Clara University |

Breaking Through / Senderos fronterizos by Francisco Jiménez. HMH Books for Young Readers, 2002. 208 pgs. ISBN: 9780618342488

At the age of fourteen, Francisco Jiménez, together with his older brother Roberto and his moth- er, are caught by la migra. Forced to leave their home in California, the entire family travels all night for twenty hours by bus, arriving at the U.S. and Mexican border in Nogales, Arizona. In the months and years that follow during the late 1950s-early 1960s, Francisco, his mother and father,

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and his seven brothers and sister not only struggle to keep their family together, but also face crushing poverty, long hours of labor, and blatant prejudice. How they sustain their hope, their good-heartedness, and tenacity is revealed in this moving, Pura Belpré Honor-winning sequel to The Circuit. Without bitterness or sentimentality, Francisco Jiménez finishes telling the story of his youth. (Grades 7 and up)

Classroom Resources: Study Guide for Breaking Through produced by Santa Clara University

Reaching Out / Más allá de mí by Francisco Jiménez. HMH Books for Young Readers, 2009. 208 pgs. ISBN: 9780547250304

From the perspective of the young adult he was then, Francisco Jiménez describes the challenges he faced in his efforts to continue his education. During his college years, the very family solidar- ity that allowed Francisco to survive as a child is tested. Not only must he leave his family behind when he goes to Santa Clara University, but while Francisco is there, his father abandons the family and returns to Mexico. This is the story of how Francisco coped with poverty, with his guilt over leaving his family financially strapped, with his self-doubt about succeeding academically, and with separation. Once again his telling is honest, true, and inspiring. (Grades 7 and up)

The Girl Who Could Silence the Wind by Meg Medina. Candlewick, 2012. 256 pgs. ISBN: 9780763646028

Sixteen-year-old Sonia Ocampo was born on the night of the worst storm Tres Montes had ever seen. And when the winds mercifully stopped, an unshakable belief in the girl’s protective pow- ers began. All her life, Sonia has been asked to pray for sick mothers or missing sons, as worried parents and friends press silver milagros in her hands. Sonia knows she has no special powers, but how can she disappoint those who look to her for solace? Still, her conscience is heavy, so when she gets a chance to travel to the city and work in the home of a wealthy woman, she seizes it. At first, Sonia feels freedom in being treated like all the other girls. But when news arrives that her beloved brother has disappeared while looking for work, she learns to her sorrow that she can never truly leave the past or her family behind. With deeply realized characters, a keen sense of place, a hint of magical realism, and a flush of young romance, Meg Medina tells the tale of a strong-willed, warm-hearted girl who dares to face life’s harsh truths as she finds her real power. (Grades 6 and up)

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to The Girl Who Could Silence the Wind written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute

The Secret Side of Empty by Maria E. Andreu. Running Press Kids, 2014. 336 pgs. ISBN: 9780762451920

What’s it like to be undocumented? High school senior M.T. knows all too well. With graduation and an uncertain future looming, she must figure out how to grow up in the only country she’s ever called home… a country in which she’s “illegal.” M.T. was born in Argentina and brought to

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America as a baby without any official papers. And as questions of college, work, and the future arise, M.T. will have to decide what exactly she wants for herself, knowing someone she loves will unavoidably pay the price for it. On the way, M.T. must navigate first love, letting go of her childhood friends as they begin a life she can’t share, a difficult relationship with a father who grew up a world away and a mother struggling to find her way in America. What is it like when the only country you’ve ever known says you don’t belong? The Secret Side of Empty offers an intimate, often surprising glimpse into a story you often hear on the news but have never heard told this way before. Author Maria E. Andreu draws from her personal experience as a former undocumented immigrant to explore issues of belonging, keeping secrets and what it’s like to be undocumented. More than that, The Secret Side of Empty is a story that will touch anyone who has ever felt excluded or unsure about the future or has kept a secret she felt was too big too share. (Grades 7 and up)

The Red Umbrella by Christina Diaz Gonzalez. Yearling | Random House, 2012. 288 pgs. ISBN: 9780375854897

The Red Umbrella is the moving tale of a 14-year-old girl’s journey from Cuba to America as part of Operation Pedro Pan—an organized exodus of more than 14,000 unaccompanied chil- dren, whose parents sent them away to escape Fidel Castro’s revolution. In 1961, two years after the Communist revolution, Lucía Álvarez still leads a carefree life, dreaming of parties and her first crush. But when the soldiers come to her sleepy Cuban town, everything begins to change. Freedoms are stripped away. Neighbors disappear. Her friends feel like strangers. And her family is being watched. As the revolution’s impact becomes more oppressive, Lucía’s parents make the heart-wrenching decision to send her and her little brother to the United States—on their own. Suddenly plunked down in Nebraska with well-meaning strangers, Lucía struggles to adapt to a new country, a new language, a new way of life. But what of her old life? Will she ever see her home or her parents again? And if she does, will she still be the same girl? The Red Umbrella is a moving story of country, culture, family, and the true meaning of home.

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to The Red Umbrella written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute

90 Miles to Havana by Enrique Flores-Galbis. Squarefish, 2012. 304 pgs. ISBN: 9781250005595

When Julian’s parents make the heartbreaking decision to send him and his two brothers away from Cuba to Miami via the Pedro Pan operation, the boys are thrust into a new world where bullies run rampant and it’s not always clear how best to protect themselves. 90 Miles to Havana is a 2011 Pura Belpré Honor Book for Narrative and a 2011 Bank Street Best Children’s Book of the Year. (Grades 4-7)

Classroom Resources: Web-based Thematic Unit for 90 Miles to Havana written by Melissa Babins, April Etzold, and Erica Frischkorn.

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Enrique’s Journey by Sonia Nazario. Delacorte, 2013. 288 pgs. ISBN 9780385743273

Based on the Los Angeles Times newspaper series that won two Pulitzer Prizes, one for feature writing and another for feature photography, this page-turner about the power of family is a pop- ular text in classrooms and a touchstone for communities across the country to engage in mean- ingful discussions about this essential American subject. Enrique’s Journey recounts the unfor- gettable quest of a Honduran boy looking for his mother, eleven years after she is forced to leave her starving family to find work in the United States. Braving unimaginable peril, often clinging to the sides and tops of freight trains, Enrique travels through hostile worlds full of thugs, bandits, and corrupt cops. But he pushes forward, relying on his wit, courage, hope, and the kindness of strangers.

Classroom Resources: Spanish, Middle, and High School Lesson Plans developed by educators around the country and compiled by Sonia Nazario

Journey of Dreams by Marge Pellegrino. Frances Lincoln, 2009. 260 pgs. ISBN 9781847800619

This is the story of how one family survives the Guatemalan army’s “scorched earth” campaign in the 1980s and how, in the midst of tragedy, suspicion and fear, their resilient love and loyal- ty — and Papa’s storytelling — keeps them going. On their harrowing journey as refugees to the United States, the dramatic ebb and flow of events are mirrored in the tapestries of one daughter’s dreams.

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to Journey of Dreams written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute

Migrant/Migrante written by by José Manuel Mateo and illustrated by Javier Martínez Pedro. Abrams, 2014. ISBN 9781419709579

A Mexican boy tells of his journey to the U.S. with his family. They must face many dangers to cross the border, only to experience the uncertainty felt by all illegal immigrants. The narrative is accompanied by one long, beautifully vivid illustration reminis¬cent of pre-Hispanic codices, packaged as an accordion-style foldout frieze.

Return to Sender / Devolver al remitente by Julia Alvarez. Knopf, 2009. 318 pgs. ISBN 978037585838-3

After Tyler’s father is injured in a tractor accident, his family is forced to hire migrant Mexican workers to help save their Vermont farm from foreclosure. Tyler isn’t sure what to make of these workers. Are they undocumented? And what about the three daughters, particularly Mari, the oldest, who is proud of her Mexican heritage but also increasingly connected her American life.

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Her family lives in constant fear of being discovered by the authorities and sent back to the pover- ty they left behind in Mexico. In a novel full of hope, but no easy answers, Julia Alvarez weaves a beautiful and timely story that will stay with readers long after they finish it.

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to Return to Sender written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute //

Before we were Free / Antes de ser libre by Julia Alvarez. Knopf, 2002. 192 pgs. ISBN: 9780440237846

Anita de la Torre never questioned her freedom living in the Dominican Republic. But by her 12th birthday in 1960, most of her relatives have emigrated to the United States, her Tío Toni has disappeared without a trace, and the government’s secret police terrorize her remaining family because of their suspected opposition of el Trujillo’s dictatorship. Using the strength and courage of her family, Anita must overcome her fears and fly to freedom, leaving all that she once knew behind. From renowned author Julia Alvarez comes an unforgettable story about adolescence, perseverance, and one girl’s struggle to be free. (Grades 7 and up)

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to Before we were Free written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute // Book Notes and Educator’s Guide to Before we were Free produced by Random House

Leaving Glorytown: One Boy’s Struggle Under Castro by Eduardo F. Calcines. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2009. 240 pgs. ISBN: 978-0374343941

Eduardo F. Calcines was a child of Fidel Castro’s Cuba; he was just three years old when Castro came to power in January 1959. After that, everything changed for his family and his country. When he was ten, his family applied for an exit visa to emigrate to America and he was ridiculed by his schoolmates and even his teachers for being a traitor to his country. But even worse, his fa- ther was sent to an agricultural reform camp to do hard labor as punishment for daring to want to leave Cuba. In this absorbing memoir, by turns humorous and heartbreaking, Eduardo Calcines recounts his boyhood and chronicles the conditions that led him to wish above all else to leave behind his beloved extended family and his home for a chance at a better future. (Grades 5-10)

Classroom Resources: Vamos a Leer Educator’s Guide to Leaving Glorytown written by Katrina Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute

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Balseros/Cuban Rafters, 2002, directed by Carles Bosch and Josep Maria Doménech. Documentary. 120 min. Rating: Not Rated

The story of Cuban refugees who risked their lives in homemade rafts to reach the United States, and what life is like for those who succeed.

Mojados: Through the Night, 2004, directed by Tommy Davis. Documentary. 65 min. Rating: Not Rated

Director Tommy Davis tags along with four migrants from a small village in Mexico as they leave their families and embark on a 120 mile trek across the deserts of Texas, attempting to evade the U.S. Border Patrol. They must overcome dehydration, hypothermia and come face to face with death.

Harvest of Empire: The Untold Story of Latinos in America, 2012, directed by Peter Getzels and Eduardo Lopez. Documentary. 90 min. Rating: Not Rated

A powerful documentary that exposes the direct connection between the long history of U.S. intervention in Latin America and the immigration crisis we face today. From the territorial ex- pansionist policies that decimated the young economies of Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba, to the covert operations that imposed oppressive military regimes in the Dominican Republic, Guate- mala, Nicaragua and El Salvador, Harvest of Empire provides an unflinching look at the origins of the growing Latino presence in the United States. Adapted from the landmark book written by journalist Juan Gonzalez, the film tells the story of an epic human saga that is largely unknown to the great majority of citizens in the U.S., but must become part of our national conversation about immigration.

Which Way Home, 2009, directed by Rebecca Cammisa. Documentary. 90 min. Rating: Not Rated.

Which Way Home is a feature documentary film that follows unaccompanied child migrants, on their journey through Mexico, as they try to reach the United States. We follow children like Olga and Freddy, nine-year old Hondurans, who are desperately trying to reach their parents in the US.; children like Jose, a ten-year old El Salvadoran, who has been abandoned by smugglers and ends up alone in a Mexican detention center; and Kevin, a canny, streetwise fourteen-year old Honduran, whose mother hopes that he will reach the U.S. and send money back to her. These are stories of hope and courage, disappointment and sorrow. They are the children you never hear about; the invisible ones.

Classroom Resources: An Educator’s Film Guide to Which Way Home written by Katrina

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Dillon on behalf of the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute Indocumentales/ Undocumentaries

Indocumentales/Undocumentaries is a US/Mexico Interdependent Film Series founded by three organizations located in New York City: what moves you?, Cinema Tropical, and the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS) at New York University. Through collaborative programming, the series has also partnered with other organizations such as the Mexican Cultur- al Institute and a vast array of host sites representing schools, non-profits, and community orga- nizations. As of 2013 the CUNY Institute of Mexican Studies has also become part of the Indocu- mentales team of co-presenters.

Classroom Resources: Film guides, lesson plans and bibliographies are available on the Indocumentales/Undocumentaries website.

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Published by Rethinking Schools, The Line Between Us explores the history of U.S-Mexican relations and the roots of Mexican immigration, all in the context of the global economy. And it shows how teachers can help students understand the immigrant experience and the drama of border life. But The Line Between Us is about more than Mexican immigration and border issues. It’s about imaginative and creative teaching that gets students to care about the world. Using role plays, stories, poetry, improvisations, simulations and video, veteran teacher Bill Bigelow demon- strates how to combine lively teaching with critical analysis. The Line Between Us is a book for teachers, adult educators, community organizers and anyone who hopes to teach, and learn, about these important issues.

The Border: Resources for Teaching

Compiled by the UNM Latin American & Iberian Institute, this website is an online space dedi- cated to sharing educational resources for teachers who intend to explore the U.S.-Mexico border with their students. Here you will find resources that have been loosely divided according to key themes, from the extensive history of the region to the development of borderland culture. We encourage you to explore all, but feel free to pick and choose the areas that will best serve your classroom instructional needs.

The Undocumented:

This is a PBS documentary with an accompanying free video game (see following entry). Mar- cos Hernandez lives and works in Chicago. He came to the United States from Mexico, after a life-threatening border crossing through the Sonora Desert in southern Arizona. Each month, he sends money to his mother in Mexico City to buy medicine for his brother, Gustavo, who needs a kidney transplant. The Undocumented, by acclaimed filmmaker Marco Williams, is Marcos’s story—as well as the story of countless other migrants. Chronicling Arizona’s deadliest summer months, award-winning documentary and fiction film director Marco Williams (Banished, Two Towns of Jasper, In Search of Our Fathers) weaves Marcos’s search with the efforts of humanitar- ians and Border Patrol agents who are fighting to prevent migrant deaths, the medical investiga- tors and Mexican Consulate workers who are trying to identify dead border crossers, and Mexi- can families who are struggling to accept the loss of a loved one. In true cinéma vérité style, The Undocumented by Marco Williams reveals the ongoing impact of immigration laws and economic policies on the very people who continue to be affected by them. By going beyond politics, the film also tells a story that is deeply personal.

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The Migrant Trail

The Migrant Trail is a video game that introduces players to the hardships and perils of crossing the Sonora Desert. Players have the chance to play as both migrants crossing the desert from Mexico to the United States and as U.S. Border Patrol agents patrolling the desert. As migrants, players are introduced to the stories of the people willing to risk their lives crossing the unforgiv- ing Sonoran desert to reach America. By playing as Border Patrol agents, players see that the job goes beyond simply capturing migrants to helping save lives and providing closure for families who lost loved ones in the desert. Through the use of real-time resource management and by inte- grating characters, stories, and visuals from the film, The Undocumented, with intense gameplay choices, The Migrant Trail gives players another way to experience and understand the human toll of our border policies.

Understanding Migration

Created by The University of Texas at Ausin’s international outreach consortium, Hemispheres, Understanding Migration was conceived in response to numerous requests from educators and curriculum specialists concerning the presentation and discussion of issues related to human migration in the social studies classroom. What are the reasons that large groups of people have found themselves moving from place to place? What effects does this movement have? And most importantly, how can such a fluid and nebulous concept be presented in a classroom in an easy- to-follow manner with clear lesson objectives and outcomes? Regional case studies were chosen to address these, and other, essential questions. Where possible, primary source documents were used to present the information in each case study.

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K-12 Reading Key Ideas and Details • Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific

textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. • Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting

details and ideas. • Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

Craft and Structure • Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and

figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. • Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text

(e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. • Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity • Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas • Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitative-

ly, as well as in words.

K-12 Writing Text Types and Purposes • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and

relevant and sufficient evidence. • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and

accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

Production and Distribution of Writing • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to

task, purpose, and audience. • Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new ap-


Research to Build and Present Knowledge • Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating un-

derstanding of the subject under investigation. • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of

each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

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Images from Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale. Provided courtesy of the author and illustrator, Duncan Tonatiuh.

An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

An Educator’s Guide to Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant’s Tale

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