Multiple Choice/True-False (1 point each)
1. In the Pool Cool Skin Cancer Prevention Program (Chapter 16):
a. Diffusion of Innovations was not an effective theoretical model for the study
b. The non-experimental design made it difficult to test the effectiveness of the intervention
c. Implementation, dissemination, and evaluation required building effective relationships with organizational and recreational sites at multiple levels
d. Results indicated no improvement in sunscreen use or sun-protection habits in the intervention group
e. Based on the pilot intervention, researchers decided it was not cost-effective to scale-up the program
2. Designing for dissemination refers to:
a. The process of ensuring that public health interventions are developed to match the needs and time frames of adopters
b. The recognition that the diversity of public health settings is an opportunity and a challenge for effective intervention dissemination
c. The process of preparing interventions to be published in academic journals
d. Always using evidence-based interventions
e. None of the above
3. As a result of the communication revolution, health information:
a. Is primarily disseminated by expert gatekeepers through reliable sources
b. Is available through an increasingly limited number of platforms
c. Needs to be carefully processed for relevance and accuracy
d. Is equitably distributed among socio-economic groups
e. Is less susceptible to the release of conflicting information
4. The Knowledge Gap Hypothesis posits:
a. That knowledge and information are unequally distributed across populations
b. Increasing the amount of available information and frequency of communication is the best solution for closing the knowledge gap between socio-economic groups
c. Public information campaigns can exacerbate inequities
d. A and C
e. All of the above
5. Which of the following is a characteristic of social marketing but not commercial marketing?
a. It encourages buying a specific product
b. It almost always involves purchasing
c. It is considered successful if the marketing organization benefits
d. It usually aims to influence a broad range of outcomes
e. None of the above statements describe social marketing
6. According to Diffusion of Innovations, innovators make up the majority of the overall population.
7. Dissemination and implementation typically occur naturally as a result of research.
8. The digital divide refers to the trend that people from higher socioeconomic positions are more likely to access and use information and communication technologies to their advantage.
9. Social marketing campaigns may use an upstream or downstream approach to change.
10. A social marketing program is effective even if it only benefits the organization marketing the product.
1. [5 points] What challenges are associated with performing measurement and evaluation of community engagement projects? What type of data collection strategies may be most useful in overcoming these challenges? Support your answer with examples/evidence.
2. [10 points] The textbook states in Chapter 16 that only 30% of local public health practitioners have heard of The Guide to Community and Preventive Services, while 90% of state-level agencies have heard of the guide but have not implemented any changes to their programs.
a. Go to The Guide to Community and Preventive Services and review the evidence for either physical activity or excessive alcohol consumption.
b. Read and review the evidence about your selected topic. Summarize what the evidence has to say.
c. Some programs/innovations were labeled as “recommended,” while others were labeled as having “insufficient evidence.” Why do you think there were differences in the labeling of such practices for your selected topic? If a program/innovation has insufficient evidence to support it, but is listed in The Guide to Community and Preventive Services, should it be used in community settings? Why or why not?
d. Select one of the programs or innovations (physical activity or excessive alcohol consumption) to implement in the community in which you live. Why did you select this program or innovation over the others listed in The Guide to Community and Preventive Services for your community?
3. [25 points] Review Norfolk’s Community Health Improvement Plan (this plan is an excellent example of the work that you may be doing if you go into local public health practice). Select one of the health concerns that the plan indicates as being a priority area for the City of Norfolk. Using what you have learned about communication strategies/principles, construct a communication or dissemination strategy for how you would effectively raise awareness about this priority health topic (and any recommended behavior changes discussed in the health improvement plan) in the community of Norfolk.
a. Describe your communication/dissemination strategy.
i. What is the purpose of your selected strategy?
ii. Would you use central or peripheral route processing to communicate your message? Why?
iii. What type of informational content would your message contain?
iv. How would you incorporate theoretical constructs into your messaging?
v. Who would be the relevant audiences for this messaging campaign? Why?
vi. How would you reach (e.g., billboards, radio advertisements, flyers) relevant audiences?
vii. What challenges do you anticipate when trying to reach these relevant audiences? How would you overcome these challenges?
viii. Describe how you would incorporate what you learned about health literacy and clear communication skills (e.g., CDC Index) into your messaging materials.
ix. Why do you believe that your selected strategy would be effective?