Chapter one Introduction and Research Methods

Chapter one Introduction and Research Methods

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

• Introducing Psychology • The Science of Psychology • Research Methods • Strategies for Student Success

Chapter one Introduction and Research Methods

realworldpsychology

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How does your culture influence what you look for in a romantic partner?

Things You’ll Learn in Chapter 1

Can diet, preschool education, and parental behavior increase a child’s intelligence?

Are older people happier than younger people?

Why do heavy drinkers misreport their alcohol use?

How do spreading your study sessions and practice testing improve test scores?

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

• Psychology = scientific study of behavior and mental processes

What is Psychology?

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Why scientific study? What is behavior? What are mental processes?

• Psychology uses empirical evidence that can be objectively tested and evaluated

• Don’t confuse psychology with “pseudopsychologies” (pseudo = false), like horoscopes, psychic powers, and self-help “pop psych”

• Let’s test your myths about psychology…

Psychology as Science

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

• Structuralism: first framework for studying psychology; uses introspection to understand sensation, perception

• Wilhelm Wundt, 1879, Leipzig, Germany – ‘Father of Psychology’ – Established first psych laboratory

• Edward Titchener, United States – Student of Wundt’s, spread structuralism’s goal of identifying

the basic building blocks of mental life

• Structuralism died out because not useful for studying animals, children, or disorders

Psychology’s Past

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• Functionalism: how the mind functions and allows animals/humans to adapt to environment

• William James established first psychology lab in United States

• Expanded psychology research to include emotions and observable behavior, began psychological testing

Psychology’s Past

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• Psychoanalytic perspective: the unconscious part of the mind has thoughts, memories, desires that lie outside personal awareness but have strong influence

• Sigmund Freud, Austria, late 1800–early 1900

Psychology’s Past

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• Mary Calkins: completed requirements for PhD under William James at Harvard but was denied her degree because of her gender. – Became prominent memory researcher – Served as first female president of APA in 1905

• Margaret Floy Washburn: first female to receive PhD in psychology

• Francis Cecil Sumner: first African American to earn PhD in psychology in 1920

• Kenneth B. Clark: student of Sumner’s, became first Black president of APA; researched harmful effects of prejudice

Gender and Minority Influences

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© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

• No one perspective on psychology can completely explain the complex human condition

BioPsychoSocial Model

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Biological

Social

Psychological

• Focus on the individual does not provide full information about emotions and motivation

• Must consider the individual in the context of the group

• Individual vs. collectivist cultures

• Fill in the blank: “I am _____.”

Culture

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• In countries with low levels of gender equality, women are more likely to be attracted a partner based on resources than on physical attractiveness (Zentner & Mitura, 2012)

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Q1 How does your culture influence what you look for in a romantic partner?

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY

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• Basic research = focuses on fundamental principles and theories to advance core scientific knowledge – Ex: classical and operant conditioning

principles explain human and animal behavior

• Applied research = designed to solve practical, real-world problems – Ex: behavior modification research uses

operant conditioning to change behavior and treat psychological disorders

Types of research

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The Scientific Method

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• After multiple studies have been conducted (replicated), a meta-analysis can combine and analyze data to determine overall trends

• Meta-analysis on children’s intelligence found healthy diet, quality preschool and interactive reading with parents increase intelligence (Protzko et al., 2013)

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Q2 Can diet, preschool education, and parental behavior increase a child’s intelligence?

• Hypothesis must be testable prediction • Variables must be operationally defined • Although the term “theory” may be used to

mean a guess in everyday language, psychological theories are evidence-based, rigorously tested, and self-correcting

• Statistical significance demonstrates that a study’s results didn’t occur by chance

More about Scientific Method

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1. Description – what occurred 2. Explanation – why something occurred

(examine causes) 3. Prediction – under what conditions is the

phenomenon likely to occur again? 4. Control – how to increase desired outcomes

and decrease negative outcomes

Psychology’s 4 Main Goals

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RESEARCH METHODS

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Systematic, scientific observation and description • Naturalistic observation: observe and record

behavior in natural setting, without interference • Survey/interview: ask people to report

behaviors, opinions and attitudes • Case studies: in-depth study of small number of

participants • Archival research: using previously recorded

data

Descriptive Research

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• When two variables are related, a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other

• Can make predictions about one variable based on known changes in the other

Correlational Research

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• In a study of 5,000 people in the U.S., as age increases, happiness increases

Q3 Are older people happier than younger people?

• Correlation coefficient is statistical number showing direction and strength of relationship between two variables

• “Correlation does not mean causation”

Interpreting Correlations

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• Required to determine causation • Independent variable is manipulated • Dependent variable is observed and

measured • Experimental group = the group that

receives the treatment • Control group = the group that does not

receive the treatment • Random assignment = ensures that change

in DV is due to IV, not some characteristic of the group

Experimental Research

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Controlling Bias

Bias • Sample bias = research participants

don’t reflect larger population • Experimenter bias = researcher

influences outcome in expected direction

• Participant bias = experimental condition influences participant’s behavior

• Social desirability = participant provides dishonest answers to personal, risky, or embarrassing questions

Controls • Placebo = inactive substance to

prevent false positive results from treatment condition

• Single-blind study = participants don’t know what group they are in

• Double-blind study = neither researcher nor participants know group assignments

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Q4 Why do heavy drinkers misreport their alcohol use?

Summary of Research Methods

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Huber & Malhotra, 2012 • Study 1: Participants viewed online dating

profiles of fictional people, including religion, education, political preference. Participants rated how much they would like to date someone and that person’s physical attractiveness.

• Study 2: using data from an existing website (OkCupid), measured relationship between shared political views and interest in dating

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POLITICS AND DATING RELATIONSHIPS

• Informed consent

• Voluntary participation

• Restricted use of deception, with debriefing – In Milgram’s famous study of obedience, participants were

told they were giving electric shocks to another. Deception was necessary in order to measure true behavior.

• Confidentiality

Ethical Guidelines

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• Nonhuman animals are used in only 7 to 8% of psychological research (mostly rats and mice)

• Animal research produces breakthroughs in medical research, drugs, understanding the brain, sensation and perception, learning, stress and many others

• Psychologists follow strict procedures for ethical treatment of animal research subjects

Animal Research

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• Therapists must maintain license • Therapy records are confidential • Therapists are legally bound to

break confidentiality if client threatens harm to self or others, or is suspected of abusing a child or elderly person

Psychotherapy Clients

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STRATEGIES FOR STUDENT SUCCESS

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1. Familiarization = review the chapter to take full advantage of content. Preface, table of contents, references, etc. help you find things in the text. Read boxes, tables and figures within text for full understanding of the subject

2. Active reading = Don’t read a textbook the way you would read a novel! Slow down, focus on details, make notes. – SQ4R: Survey, Question, Read, Recite,

Review, wRite

Study Habits

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3. Distributed Practice = Don’t cram! Instead, spread your practice/study over time

4. Practice test taking = Practice test taking and Distributed practice are two of the most efficient ways to study and learn.

Study Habits

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Q5 How do spreading your study sessions and practice testing improve test scores?

• Establish a baseline to understand how you spend your time now

• Set up a realistic schedule with daily and weekly “to do” list

• Reward yourself for following your schedule • Maximize your time by avoiding distraction,

wasted efforts

Time Management

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What time management

techniques work best for you?

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Slide Number 1
  • Slide Number 2
  • What is Psychology?
  • Psychology as Science
  • Slide Number 5
  • Psychology’s Past
  • Psychology’s Past
  • Psychology’s Past
  • Gender and Minority Influences
  • Slide Number 10
  • Slide Number 11
  • BioPsychoSocial Model
  • Culture
  • Slide Number 14
  • Slide Number 15
  • Slide Number 16
  • Slide Number 17
  • The science of psychology
  • Types of research
  • The Scientific Method
  • Slide Number 21
  • More about Scientific Method
  • Psychology’s 4 Main Goals
  • Research methods
  • Descriptive Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Interpreting Correlations
  • Experimental Research
  • Controlling Bias
  • Summary of Research Methods
  • Slide Number 31
  • Ethical Guidelines
  • Animal Research
  • Psychotherapy Clients
  • Strategies for student success
  • Study Habits
  • Study Habits
  • Time Management
  • Slide Number 39

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