History 2

History 2

The  documents  for  this  week  juxtapose  two  of  the  big  problems  Americans  faced  in   the  1970s,  environmental  degradation  and  the  energy  crisis.    Many  of  the  texts  are   visual,  and  you  need  to  practice  reading  these  images  for  meaning  beyond  the  very   basics.    What  is  depicted  in  the  photograph?    Was  the  photograph  taken   intentionally?    For  what  purpose?    Might  it  have  been  staged?    What  do  the  answers   to  these  questions  tell  you  about  the  larger  meaning  of  the  photograph?     Your  first  document  is  a  comic  book  that  General  Electric  Company  wrote  and   published  in  1948  about  atomic  power.    What  is  the  purpose  and  significance  of   this?    What  context  does  it  supply  for  our  efforts  to  understand  the  1970s?     The  next  five  documents  consist  of  maps  and  charts  detailing  the  history  of  energy   production  and  consumption.    What  can  be  learned  from  them?    Do  they  count  as   primary  sources?    Why  or  why  not?     The  next  twenty  documents  are  photographs  depicting  causes  and  consequences  of   environmental  degradation.    Which  are  the  most  revealing?    Why?    Which  are  the   least  revealing?    Why?     The  remaining  documents  are  textual:

1. President  Richard  Nixon’s  remarks  about  a  national  energy  policy,  Sept.  8,   1973.

2. A  Nov.  3,  1973  memorandum  of  conversation  between  Henry  Kissinger,   James  Schlesinger,  and  William  Colby  about  the  oil  crisis  in  the  Middle  East.

3. A  letter  to  President  Carter  after  he  was  elected  president  in  1976.   4. Jimmy  Carter’s  proposed  energy  policy,  April  18,  1977.   5. Jimmy  Carter’s  July  15,  1979  “Crisis  of  Confidence”  speech.   6. A  1980  White  House  memo  on  the  Love  Canal  crisis.

What  do  these  documents  suggest  about  change  over  time?    Do  these  official   documents  suggest  more  or  less  sophisticated  thinking  about  the  energy  crisis  and   the  environmental  problems  before  the  country?    Does  there  seem  to  be  a  partisan   difference  between  the  reactions  and  strategies  of  the  Republican  Nixon   administration  and  the  Democratic  Carter  administration?

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” 1948 Records of the Atomic Energy Commission National Archives Identifier: 281568

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 2 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 2)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 3 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 3)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 4 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 4)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 5 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 5)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 6 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 6)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 7 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 7)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 8 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 8)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 9 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 9)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 10 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 10)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 11 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 11)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 12 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 12)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 13 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 13)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 14 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 14)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 15 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 15)

3/13/14, 9:13 PMComic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 16 of 16http://docsteach.org/documents/281568/print

Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” (page 16)

3/13/14, 8:47 PMAbandoned Automobiles and Other Debris Clutter an Acid Water and Oil Filled Five Acre Pond | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/555849/print

Abandoned Automobiles and Other Debris Clutter an Acid Water and Oil Filled Five Acre Pond 4/1974 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 555849

Full Caption: Abandoned Automobiles and Other Debris Clutter an Acid Water and Oil Filled Five Acre Pond, it Was Cleaned up Under EPA Supervision to Prevent Possible Contamination of Great Salt Lake and a Wildlife Refuge Nearby

3/13/14, 8:55 PMAerial of Three Mile Island | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/540012/print

Aerial of Three Mile Island 4/10/1979 Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards National Archives Identifier: 540012

nancybeckyoung
Typewritten Text
nancybeckyoung
Typewritten Text
Crowd at rally. Anti-nuke rally in Harrisburg [Pennsylvania] at the Capitol., 04/09/1979

3/13/14, 8:44 PMAsarco Smelter works near the U.S.-Mexican Border | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/545354/print

Asarco Smelter works near the U.S.-Mexican Border 05/1972 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 545354

Full Caption: Asarco Smelter works near the U.S. – Mexican Border. The air is polluted for three miles in any direction from the plant.

3/13/14, 8:49 PMChildren Play On Garbage Dump | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/544794/print

Children Play On Garbage Dump 7/1972 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 544794

3/13/14, 8:51 PMCyclist in front of Environmental Center | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/543032/print

Cyclist in front of Environmental Center 5/1972 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 543032

3/13/14, 8:54 PMDrive-In Restaurant | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/547855/print

Drive-In Restaurant 6/1973 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 547855

3/13/14, 8:40 PMExample of Landfill at Bayonne, New Jersey | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/555814/print

Example of Landfill at Bayonne, New Jersey 6/1974 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 555814

Full Caption: Example of Landfill at Bayonne, New Jersey, on New York Bay in Tthe Metropolitan Area. Landfill and Incineration are Alternatives to Ocean Dumping. But Incineration Adds to Air Pollution and Landfill Needs Adequate Open Land Which is Hard to Find, and it Also Means a Potential Danger of Polluting Groundwater Near The Dump Site. Ocean Dumping Has Always Been the Most Feasible for Waste Disposal in the Area

3/13/14, 8:46 PMIndustrial Smog Blacks Out Homes | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/545396/print

Industrial Smog Blacks Out Homes 7/1972 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 545396

Full Caption: Industrial Smog Blacks Out Homes Adjacent to North Birmingham Pipe Plant, this is the Most Heavily Polluted Area of the City

3/13/14, 8:55 PMJack in the Box Drive Thru | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/6106974/print

Jack in the Box Drive Thru 1973 Records of District Courts of the United States National Archives Identifier: 6106974

3/13/14, 8:47 PMMunicipal Dump in The Bronx Reaches Almost To The Doorstep Of “Co-Op City” | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/549747/print

Municipal Dump in The Bronx Reaches Almost To The Doorstep Of “Co-Op City” 3/1973 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 549747

Full Caption: Municipal Dump in The Bronx Reaches Almost To The Doorstep Of “Co-Op City” (Housing Development In Background). Although Dump Already Exceeds Capacity, Pile-Up Continues; High Winds, Typical Of the Area, Scatter Bits of Refuse for Miles Around

3/13/14, 8:57 PMPassengers buying tickets (back ground) at Pennsylvania Station in New York City. | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/556684/print

Passengers buying tickets (back ground) at Pennsylvania Station in New York City. 04/1974 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 556684

Full Caption: Passengers buying tickets (back ground) at Pennsylvania Station in New York City. The AMTRAK Corporation reported 18,000,000 passengers in the U.S. rode their trains during 1974, an increase of 10 percent from the previous year. Even though management noted more riders and a revenue of $256.9 million, the corporation has a deficit of 272.6 million during the period. AMTRAK owns its trains and allied materials, but leases use of the tracks from the nation’s railroads. Foreground crowd waits for New York State sponsored lottery drawing.

3/13/14, 8:42 PMPhelps Dodge Corp. Waste Rock Dump And Smelter Has Polluted The Stream With Iron Oxides | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/543992/print

Phelps Dodge Corp. Waste Rock Dump And Smelter Has Polluted The Stream With Iron Oxides 9/1972 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 543992

3/13/14, 9:16 PMPresident Jimmy Carter leaving [Three Mile Island] for Middletown, Pennsylvania | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/540021/print

President Jimmy Carter leaving [Three Mile Island] for Middletown, Pennsylvania 4/1/1979 Records of Temporary Committees, Commissions, and Boards National Archives Identifier: 540021

3/13/14, 8:52 PMRaw Sewage is Discharged Into the Ocean Three Miles From Waikiki Beac…an To Build a Treatment Plant is in The Works | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/553749/print

Raw Sewage is Discharged Into the Ocean Three Miles From Waikiki Beach. An EPA Loan To Build a Treatment Plant is in The Works 10/1973 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 553749

3/13/14, 9:12 PMSign of Energy Crisis | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/550092/print

Sign of Energy Crisis 5/1973 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 550092

3/13/14, 9:07 PMSmall “Tourist Trap” Gold-Mining Operation. An Old Steam Shovel is Used…l Gold Mill. Tourists Pan for Ore at 50c a Pan. | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/543748/print

Small “Tourist Trap” Gold-Mining Operation. An Old Steam Shovel is Used to Gather Gravel from Stream and Pour it into a Small Gold Mill. Tourists Pan for Ore at 50c a Pan. 7/1972 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 543748

3/13/14, 8:45 PMThe Long Island Expressway in Queens, New York | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/555744/print

The Long Island Expressway in Queens, New York 05/1974 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 555744

Full caption: The Long Island Expressway in Queens, New York. Transportation in an urban and industrial area like New York produces environmental problems of its own. Freeways sprawl across the landscape and cut through the hearts of cities isolating one neigborhood from another. The automobile must take repsonsibility for air pollution, one of the more critical problems of the environment which affect the bight.

3/13/14, 8:44 PMTwisted girders remain at the rear of a chemical storage building of the…ation, after a June 20, 1974, fire and explosion | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/555540/print

Twisted girders remain at the rear of a chemical storage building of the Pennwalt Corporation, after a June 20, 1974, fire and explosion 6/1974 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 555540

Full Caption: Twisted girders remain at the rear of a chemical storage building of the Pennwalt Corporation, after a June 20, 1974, fire and explosion. The destruction was believed caused by lightning. Chemicals were washed through the storm drain to the Olitangy River a half mile away and caused a major fish kill. EPA authorities supervised the cleanup.

3/13/14, 8:48 PMUntreated Sewage From Manhattan, New York, Flowing Into The Hudson River | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 1http://docsteach.org/documents/555781/print

Untreated Sewage From Manhattan, New York, Flowing Into The Hudson River 6/1974 Records of the Environmental Protection Agency National Archives Identifier: 555781

Full Caption: Untreated sewage from Manhattan, New York, flowing Into the Hudson River. Rivers which flow through the region carry raw And partially digested sewage, and chemical and industrial wastes into the waters of the bight. Accumulation of wastes in waters bordering the bight present one of the most critical stresses to its environment

The American Presidency Project John T. Woolley & Gerhard Peters • Santa Barbara, California return to original document

• Richard Nixon Remarks About the Nation’s Energy Policy. September 8, 1973

AS you know, we have just completed a e-hour meeting in the Cabinet Room of the major Administration officials having responsibilities in the field of energy. Governor Love presided over the meeting at my direction and gave a report with regard to the programs that he has initiated and that had been initiated prior to his taking over this assignment.

I would like to summarize for the members of the press, before having the Governor answer your specific questions in this field, the problem as I see it at this time.

We have heard a lot about a crisis. I do not use that term, because we do not face a crisis in that sense of the word. I would simply say that in the short term we face a problem, a problem with regard to energy–heating, for example, this winter, just as we thought we faced a problem of gasoline this summer, and the possibility of brownouts.

We are not Pollyannaish about solving that problem, but insofar as the short-term problem is concerned, Governor Love has a program which he is working on and one which is designed to meet the problem and to deal with it.

So, I would summarize by saying that short-term we face a problem. But long-term, and this is the important thing for us to remember, the prospects for adequate energy for the United States are excellent. I would say the prospects for adequate energy for the United States are as good as they are for any industrial nation in the world and perhaps better, better because of our enormous research capabilities.

This morning we addressed both the short-term problem and the long-term problem and the legislative problem and the administrative problem.

In my press conference a couple of days ago, I mentioned seven pieces of legislation. Today we have moved down to four pieces of legislation that we consider to be of the highest urgency and that must be acted upon before the end of ‘the year. These pieces of legislation deal with both the short-term problem and address themselves particularly, however, to the long-term problem.

One is the Alaska pipeline, which is presently in conference and, of course, where the prospects are excellent. The second is the deepwater ports. The longer we wait here, the longer we are going to have to wait to have the capacity to bring in the products from abroad that we need to meet our energy needs. The third is the deregulation of gas. This we must act upon now, because only through deregulation can the new construction, which is essential, the new construction, the drilling, et cetera, and the refineries be undertaken. And the fourth is the legislation with regard ‘to strip raining.

The strip mining legislation, as we know, has elements of controversy because of conflict with the environmentalists. But Mr. Train 1 was here at the meeting this morning, at our request, and he has been participating in all of these meetings, and he believes that the legislation that we have presented to the Congress, properly administered, is one that can be consistent with our environmental goals.

1Russell E. Train was Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality and Administrator-designate of the Environmental Protection Agency.

So much for what the Congress should do. These four pieces of legislation that Congress should consider on a high priority basis, because failing to act means that we could have very serious problems, not just this year but, particularly in the years ahead.

The other points that I would make are with regard to what we can do and have done and are doing from an administrative standpoint, that do not require legislation.

One is the relaxation of emission standards. Governor Love is calling together several Governors who have particular interest in this area, and he will be meeting with them either next week or early in the following week. The relaxation of emission standards will have the effect of dealing with the immediate problem, the problem we face this winter, and unless those standards are relaxed, we could have a very serious problem this winter. That is why the Governor is moving in this particular area. This can be done, incidentally, administratively, but it requires the cooperation of the Governors because the Governors have, in many instances, as a result of our asking them to do so, had their legislators adopt standards at the State level which presently are State law. It will be necessary for those to be modified.

A second area where administrative action is possible is with regard to the Elk Hills Naval Reserve. Here, consultation with the Congress is required, and we will institute that kind of consultation that is necessary, particularly with the Armed Services Committee. But developing the Elk Hills Reserves is essential in terms of providing, from our domestic sources, for the needs that we have.

And consequently, we are moving next week in the consultative process so that we can go forward with the Elk Hills development.

And then further–and this looks down the road–we gave the go-ahead this morning for a sharp step-rip in the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

Now, there are many old wives tales and horror stories that are told about nuclear plants and all the rest. Russell Train was there; I asked him about the effect on the environment, to separate out the fears from what actually the facts were. He came down on the side of going forward with the program, the development of nuclear power, not only having in mind our present technology but also research which would allow us to develop nuclear energy in much more exciting ways, looking to the future, for peaceful purposes.

And in this field, I will be meeting, myself, next week with members of the Atomic Energy Commission, along with the Governor and with Russell Train so that we can give new impetus to that program of the development of nuclear power for peaceful purposes.

We were the first to make the breakthrough in nuclear power for military purposes. We have lagged behind in peaceful uses. Some nations abroad, while they certainly do not have our ‘technology, at least have more thrust here, they have more drive here in this area than we have. But the development of nuclear power for peaceful purposes is to be a major Administration initiative from now on through the balance of our term here.

In the field of research also this relates clear back to the strip mining a moment ago–is the area of research with regard to the use of coal. Secretary Morton pointed out in our meeting this morning that when we think of the energy sources for the United States, that 4 percent, only 4 percent presently in the ground, come from oil, 3 percent potentially from natural gas, and 91 percent from coal.

The United States, at the present time has almost half of the coal reserves of the world. And the problem only is to get the coal out in a way that is not too destructive to the environment, but also to find the uses for coal, lignification programs, other programs which the Governor is quite familiar with and which I am not, but which he will be glad to fill you in on:

I would simply summarize in this way. The other day in our press conference-the Governor and I did discuss this, and I have asked him, once he does have the time, to perhaps travel abroad and have an opportunity to survey the situation in some of these countries himself–I was asked about the developments in the Mideast and what that meant to us.

The United States would prefer to continue to import oil, petroleum products from the Mideast, from Venezuela, from Canada, from other countries, but also we are keenly aware of the fact that no nation, and particularly no industrial nation. must be in a position of being at the mercy of any other nation by having its energy supplies suddenly cut off.

We are going to do the very best we can to work out problems with the Mideastern countries or any other countries that may develop, so that we can continue to have a flow of imports into the United States of oil products particularly.

On the other hand, the programs that I have discussed here today. for the most part, as you know, deal with developing within the United States itself the capability of providing for our energy resources. We can develop those resources. It can be done within a matter of a very few years. I am not going to put a timetable on it, but it can be done. Because the United States, as a great industrial nation. the most advanced industrial nation of the world, must be in a position and must develop the capacity so that no other nation in the world that might, for some reason or another, take an unfriendly attitude toward the United States, has us, frankly, in a position where they can cut off’ our oil or, basically more important. cut off our energy.

I would like to say finally that Governor Love in his brief time here has done a superb job of trying to pull all of the various agencies of the Government together. The conversation within the Cabinet Room was quite spirited. There were disagreements in certain areas, and finally, however, we did agree on the program that I have outlined here today.

The Governor will be able to answer technical questions about propane and other things, where I am not, frankly, quite knowledgeable.

So, Governor, the ladies and gentlemen are yours.

Citation: Richard Nixon: “Remarks About the Nation’s Energy Policy.”, September 8, 1973. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=3953.

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer 11/3/1973 File Unit from Collection GRF-0314: Memoranda of Conversations (Nixon and Ford Administrations) National Archives Identifier: 1552628

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 2 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 2)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 3 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 3)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 4 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 4)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 5 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 5)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 6 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 6)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 7 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 7)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 8 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 8)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 9 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 9)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 10 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 10)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 11 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 11)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 12 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 12)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 13 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 13)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 14 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 14)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 15 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 15)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 16 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 16)

3/13/14, 9:17 PMNovember 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 17 of 17http://docsteach.org/documents/1552628/print

November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer (page 17)

Letter from Grace Ledbetter to President Jimmy Carter Regarding Re-election 1/21/1979 Carter White House Central Files National Archives Identifier: 593314

Additional Details on this Document from our Online Exhibit the Digital Vaults: Shorter red lights, no aerosol cans In this January 21, 1977, letter, Grace Ledbetter congratulates Jimmy Carter on being elected President of the United States. She also states her concerns regarding pollution and the energy crisis of the 1970s.

3/13/14, 8:19 PMProposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 1 of 6http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/

Primary Resources: Proposed Energy Policy

Share

Jimmy Carter delivered this televised speech on April 18, 1977.

Tonight I want to have an unpleasant talk with you about a problem unprecedented in our history. With the exception of preventing war, this is the greatest challenge our country will face during our lifetimes. The energy crisis has not yet overwhelmed us, but it will if we do not act quickly.

It is a problem we will not solve in the next few years, and it is likely to get progressively worse through the rest of this century.

We must not be selfish or timid if we hope to have a decent world for our children and grandchildren.

We simply must balance our demand for energy with our rapidly shrinking resources. By acting now, we can control our future instead of letting the future control us.

Two days from now, I will present my energy proposals to the Congress. Its members will be my partners and they have already given me a great deal of valuable advice. Many of these proposals will be unpopular. Some will cause you to put up with inconveniences and to make sacrifices.

The most important thing about these proposals is that the alternative may be a national catastrophe. Further delay can affect our strength and our power as a nation.

Our decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability of the President and the Congress to govern. This difficult effort will be the “moral equivalent of war” — except that we will be uniting our efforts to build and not destroy.

I know that some of you may doubt that we face real energy shortages. The 1973 gasoline lines are gone, and our homes are warm again. But our energy problem is worse tonight than it was in 1973 or a few weeks ago in the dead of winter. It is worse because more waste has occurred, and more time has passed by without our planning for the future. And it will get worse every day until we act.

The oil and natural gas we rely on for 75 percent of our energy are running out. In spite of increased effort, domestic production has been dropping steadily at about six percent a year. Imports have doubled in the last five years. Our nation’s independence of economic and political

American Experience: TV’s most-watched history series. PBS.org Video Programs TV Schedules Shop Donate

3/13/14, 8:19 PMProposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 2 of 6http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/

action is becoming increasingly constrained. Unless profound changes are made to lower oil consumption, we now believe that early in the 1980s the world will be demanding more oil that it can produce.

The world now uses about 60 million barrels of oil a day and demand increases each year about five percent. This means that just to stay even we need the production of a new Texas every year, an Alaskan North Slope every nine months, or a new Saudi Arabia every three years. Obviously, this cannot continue.

We must look back in history to understand our energy problem. Twice in the last several hundred years there has been a transition in the way people use energy.

The first was about 200 years ago, away from wood — which had provided about 90 percent of all fuel — to coal, which was more efficient. This change became the basis of the Industrial Revolution.

The second change took place in this century, with the growing use of oil and natural gas. They were more convenient and cheaper than coal, and the supply seemed to be almost without limit. They made possible the age of automobile and airplane travel. Nearly everyone who is alive today grew up during this age and we have never known anything different.

Because we are now running out of gas and oil, we must prepare quickly for a third change, to strict conservation and to the use of coal and permanent renewable energy sources, like solar power.

The world has not prepared for the future. During the 1950s, people used twice as much oil as during the 1940s. During the 1960s, we used twice as much as during the 1950s. And in each of those decades, more oil was consumed than in all of mankind’s previous history.

World consumption of oil is still going up. If it were possible to keep it rising during the 1970s and 1980s by 5 percent a year as it has in the past, we could use up all the proven reserves of oil in the entire world by the end of the next decade.

I know that many of you have suspected that some supplies of oil and gas are being withheld. You may be right, but suspicions about oil companies cannot change the fact that we are running out of petroleum.

All of us have heard about the large oil fields on Alaska’s North Slope. In a few years when the North Slope is producing fully, its total output will be just about equal to two years’ increase in our nation’s energy demand.

Each new inventory of world oil reserves has been more disturbing than the last. World oil production can probably keep going up for another six or eight years. But some time in the 1980s it can’t go up much more. Demand will overtake production. We have no choice about that.

But we do have a choice about how we will spend the next few years. Each American uses the energy equivalent of 60 barrels of oil per person each year. Ours is the most wasteful nation on

3/13/14, 8:19 PMProposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 3 of 6http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/

earth. We waste more energy than we import. With about the same standard of living, we use twice as much energy per person as do other countries like Germany, Japan, and Sweden.

One choice is to continue doing what we have been doing before. We can drift along for a few more years.

Our consumption of oil would keep going up every year. Our cars would continue to be too large and inefficient. Three-quarters of them would continue to carry only one person — the driver — while our public transportation system continues to decline. We can delay insulating our houses, and they will continue to lose about 50 percent of their heat in waste.

We can continue using scarce oil and natural [gas] to generate electricity, and continue wasting two-thirds of their fuel value in the process.

If we do not act, then by 1985 we will be using 33 percent more energy than we do today.

We can’t substantially increase our domestic production, so we would need to import twice as much oil as we do now. Supplies will be uncertain. The cost will keep going up. Six years ago, we paid $3.7 billion for imported oil. Last year we spent $37 billion — nearly ten times as much — and this year we may spend over $45 billion.

Unless we act, we will spend more than $550 billion for imported oil by 1985 — more than $2,500 a year for every man, woman, and child in America. Along with that money we will continue losing American jobs and becoming increasingly vulnerable to supply interruptions.

Now we have a choice. But if we wait, we will live in fear of embargoes. We could endanger our freedom as a sovereign nation to act in foreign affairs. Within ten years we would not be able to import enough oil — from any country, at any acceptable price.

If we wait, and do not act, then our factories will not be able to keep our people on the job with reduced supplies of fuel. Too few of our utilities will have switched to coal, our most abundant energy source.

We will not be ready to keep our transportation system running with smaller, more efficient cars and a better network of buses, trains and public transportation.

We will feel mounting pressure to plunder the environment. We will have a crash program to build more nuclear plants, strip-mine and burn more coal, and drill more offshore wells than we will need if we begin to conserve now. Inflation will soar, production will go down, people will lose their jobs. Intense competition will build up among nations and among the different regions within our own country.

If we fail to act soon, we will face an economic, social and political crisis that will threaten our free institutions.

But we still have another choice. We can begin to prepare right now. We can decide to act while

3/13/14, 8:19 PMProposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 4 of 6http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/

there is time.

That is the concept of the energy policy we will present on Wednesday. Our national energy plan is based on ten fundamental principles.

The first principle is that we can have an effective and comprehensive energy policy only if the government takes responsibility for it and if the people understand the seriousness of the challenge and are willing to make sacrifices.

The second principle is that healthy economic growth must continue. Only by saving energy can we maintain our standard of living and keep our people at work. An effective conservation program will create hundreds of thousands of new jobs.

The third principle is that we must protect the environment. Our energy problems have the same cause as our environmental problems — wasteful use of resources. Conservation helps us solve both at once.

The fourth principle is that we must reduce our vulnerability to potentially devastating embargoes. We can protect ourselves from uncertain supplies by reducing our demand for oil, making the most of our abundant resources such as coal, and developing a strategic petroleum reserve.

The fifth principle is that we must be fair. Our solutions must ask equal sacrifices from every region, every class of people, every interest group. Industry will have to do its part to conserve, just as the consumers will. The energy producers deserve fair treatment, but we will not let the oil companies profiteer.

The sixth principle, and the cornerstone of our policy, is to reduce the demand through conservation. Our emphasis on conservation is a clear difference between this plan and others which merely encouraged crash production efforts. Conservation is the quickest, cheapest, most practical source of energy. Conservation is the only way we can buy a barrel of oil for a few dollars. It costs about $13 to waste it.

The seventh principle is that prices should generally reflect the true replacement costs of energy. We are only cheating ourselves if we make energy artificially cheap and use more than we can really afford.

The eighth principle is that government policies must be predictable and certain. Both consumers and producers need policies they can count on so they can plan ahead. This is one reason I am working with the Congress to create a new Department of Energy, to replace more than 50 different agencies that now have some control over energy.

The ninth principle is that we must conserve the fuels that are scarcest and make the most of those that are more plentiful. We can’t continue to use oil and gas for 75 percent of our consumption when they make up seven percent of our domestic reserves. We need to shift to plentiful coal while taking care to protect the environment, and to apply stricter safety standards to nuclear energy.

3/13/14, 8:19 PMProposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 5 of 6http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/

The tenth principle is that we must start now to develop the new, unconventional sources of energy we will rely on in the next century.

These ten principles have guided the development of the policy I would describe to you and the Congress on Wednesday.

Our energy plan will also include a number of specific goals, to measure our progress toward a stable energy system.

These are the goals we set for 1985:

-Reduce the annual growth rate in our energy demand to less than two percent.

-Reduce gasoline consumption by ten percent below its current level.

-Cut in half the portion of United States oil which is imported, from a potential level of 16 million barrels to six million barrels a day.

-Establish a strategic petroleum reserve of one billion barrels, more than six months’ supply.

-Increase our coal production by about two thirds to more than 1 billion tons a year.

-Insulate 90 percent of American homes and all new buildings.

-Use solar energy in more than two and one-half million houses.

We will monitor our progress toward these goals year by year. Our plan will call for stricter conservation measures if we fall behind.

I cant tell you that these measures will be easy, nor will they be popular. But I think most of you realize that a policy which does not ask for changes or sacrifices would not be an effective policy.

This plan is essential to protect our jobs, our environment, our standard of living, and our future.

Whether this plan truly makes a difference will be decided not here in Washington, but in every town and every factory, in every home and on every highway and every farm.

I believe this can be a positive challenge. There is something especially American in the kinds of changes we have to make. We have been proud, through our history of being efficient people.

We have been proud of our leadership in the world. Now we have a chance again to give the world a positive example.

And we have been proud of our vision of the future. We have always wanted to give our children

3/13/14, 8:19 PMProposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 6 of 6http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-energy/

Share

and grandchildren a world richer in possibilities than we’ve had. They are the ones we must provide for now. They are the ones who will suffer most if we don’t act.

I’ve given you some of the principles of the plan.

I am sure each of you will find something you don’t like about the specifics of our proposal. It will demand that we make sacrifices and changes in our lives. To some degree, the sacrifices will be painful — but so is any meaningful sacrifice. It will lead to some higher costs, and to some greater inconveniences for everyone.

But the sacrifices will be gradual, realistic and necessary. Above all, they will be fair. No one will gain an unfair advantage through this plan. No one will be asked to bear an unfair burden. We will monitor the accuracy of data from the oil and natural gas companies, so that we will know their true production, supplies, reserves, and profits.

The citizens who insist on driving large, unnecessarily powerful cars must expect to pay more for that luxury.

We can be sure that all the special interest groups in the country will attack the part of this plan that affects them directly. They will say that sacrifice is fine, as long as other people do it, but that their sacrifice is unreasonable, or unfair, or harmful to the country. If they succeed, then the burden on the ordinary citizen, who is not organized into an interest group, would be crushing.

There should be only one test for this program: whether it will help our country.

Other generation of Americans have faced and mastered great challenges. I have faith that meeting this challenge will make our own lives even richer. If you will join me so that we can work together with patriotism and courage, we will again prove that our great nation can lead the world into an age of peace, independence and freedom.

Jimmy Carter, “The President’s Proposed Energy Policy.” 18 April 1977. Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. XXXXIII, No. 14, May 1, 1977, pp. 418-420.

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 1 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

Primary Resources: Crisis of Confidence

Share

Jimmy Carter delivered this televised speech on July 15, 1979.

Good evening. This is a special night for me. Exactly three years ago, on July 15, 1976, I accepted the nomination of my party to run for president of the United States.

I promised you a president who is not isolated from the people, who feels your pain, and who shares your dreams and who draws his strength and his wisdom from you.

During the past three years I’ve spoken to you on many occasions about national concerns, the energy crisis, reorganizing the government, our nation’s economy, and issues of war and especially peace. But over those years the subjects of the speeches, the talks, and the press conferences have become increasingly narrow, focused more and more on what the isolated world of Washington thinks is important. Gradually, you’ve heard more and more about what the government thinks or what the government should be doing and less and less about our nation’s hopes, our dreams, and our vision of the future.

Ten days ago I had planned to speak to you again about a very important subject — energy. For the fifth time I would have described the urgency of the problem and laid out a series of legislative recommendations to the Congress. But as I was preparing to speak, I began to ask myself the same question that I now know has been troubling many of you. Why have we not been able to get together as a nation to resolve our serious energy problem?

It’s clear that the true problems of our Nation are much deeper — deeper than gasoline lines or energy shortages, deeper even than inflation or recession. And I realize more than ever that as president I need your help. So I decided to reach out and listen to the voices of America.

I invited to Camp David people from almost every segment of our society — business and labor, teachers and preachers, governors, mayors, and private citizens. And then I left Camp David to listen to other Americans, men and women like you.

It has been an extraordinary ten days, and I want to share with you what I’ve heard. First of all, I got a lot of personal advice. Let me quote a few of the typical comments that I wrote down.

This from a southern governor: “Mr. President, you are not leading this nation — you’re just managing the government.”

American Experience: TV’s most-watched history series. PBS.org Video Programs TV Schedules Shop Donate

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 2 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

“You don’t see the people enough any more.”

“Some of your Cabinet members don’t seem loyal. There is not enough discipline among your disciples.”

“Don’t talk to us about politics or the mechanics of government, but about an understanding of our common good.”

“Mr. President, we’re in trouble. Talk to us about blood and sweat and tears.”

“If you lead, Mr. President, we will follow.”

Many people talked about themselves and about the condition of our nation.

This from a young woman in Pennsylvania: “I feel so far from government. I feel like ordinary people are excluded from political power.”

And this from a young Chicano: “Some of us have suffered from recession all our lives.”

“Some people have wasted energy, but others haven’t had anything to waste.”

And this from a religious leader: “No material shortage can touch the important things like God’s love for us or our love for one another.”

And I like this one particularly from a black woman who happens to be the mayor of a small Mississippi town: “The big-shots are not the only ones who are important. Remember, you can’t sell anything on Wall Street unless someone digs it up somewhere else first.”

This kind of summarized a lot of other statements: “Mr. President, we are confronted with a moral and a spiritual crisis.”

Several of our discussions were on energy, and I have a notebook full of comments and advice. I’ll read just a few.

“We can’t go on consuming 40 percent more energy than we produce. When we import oil we are also importing inflation plus unemployment.”

“We’ve got to use what we have. The Middle East has only five percent of the world’s energy, but the United States has 24 percent.”

And this is one of the most vivid statements: “Our neck is stretched over the fence and OPEC has a knife.”

“There will be other cartels and other shortages. American wisdom and courage right now can set

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 3 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

a path to follow in the future.”

This was a good one: “Be bold, Mr. President. We may make mistakes, but we are ready to experiment.”

And this one from a labor leader got to the heart of it: “The real issue is freedom. We must deal with the energy problem on a war footing.”

And the last that I’ll read: “When we enter the moral equivalent of war, Mr. President, don’t issue us BB guns.”

These ten days confirmed my belief in the decency and the strength and the wisdom of the American people, but it also bore out some of my long-standing concerns about our nation’s underlying problems.

I know, of course, being president, that government actions and legislation can be very important. That’s why I’ve worked hard to put my campaign promises into law — and I have to admit, with just mixed success. But after listening to the American people I have been reminded again that all the legislation in the world can’t fix what’s wrong with America. So, I want to speak to you first tonight about a subject even more serious than energy or inflation. I want to talk to you right now about a fundamental threat to American democracy.

I do not mean our political and civil liberties. They will endure. And I do not refer to the outward strength of America, a nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the world, with unmatched economic power and military might.

The threat is nearly invisible in ordinary ways. It is a crisis of confidence. It is a crisis that strikes at the very heart and soul and spirit of our national will. We can see this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation.

The erosion of our confidence in the future is threatening to destroy the social and the political fabric of America.

The confidence that we have always had as a people is not simply some romantic dream or a proverb in a dusty book that we read just on the Fourth of July.

It is the idea which founded our nation and has guided our development as a people. Confidence in the future has supported everything else — public institutions and private enterprise, our own families, and the very Constitution of the United States. Confidence has defined our course and has served as a link between generations. We’ve always believed in something called progress. We’ve always had a faith that the days of our children would be better than our own.

Our people are losing that faith, not only in government itself but in the ability as citizens to serve as the ultimate rulers and shapers of our democracy. As a people we know our past and we are proud of it. Our progress has been part of the living history of America, even the world. We always believed that we were part of a great movement of humanity itself called democracy, involved in the search for freedom, and that belief has always strengthened us in our purpose.

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 4 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

But just as we are losing our confidence in the future, we are also beginning to close the door on our past.

In a nation that was proud of hard work, strong families, close-knit communities, and our faith in God, too many of us now tend to worship self-indulgence and consumption. Human identity is no longer defined by what one does, but by what one owns. But we’ve discovered that owning things and consuming things does not satisfy our longing for meaning. We’ve learned that piling up material goods cannot fill the emptiness of lives which have no confidence or purpose.

The symptoms of this crisis of the American spirit are all around us. For the first time in the history of our country a majority of our people believe that the next five years will be worse than the past five years. Two-thirds of our people do not even vote. The productivity of American workers is actually dropping, and the willingness of Americans to save for the future has fallen below that of all other people in the Western world.

As you know, there is a growing disrespect for government and for churches and for schools, the news media, and other institutions. This is not a message of happiness or reassurance, but it is the truth and it is a warning.

These changes did not happen overnight. They’ve come upon us gradually over the last generation, years that were filled with shocks and tragedy.

We were sure that ours was a nation of the ballot, not the bullet, until the murders of John Kennedy and Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. We were taught that our armies were always invincible and our causes were always just, only to suffer the agony of Vietnam. We respected the presidency as a place of honor until the shock of Watergate.

We remember when the phrase “sound as a dollar” was an expression of absolute dependability, until ten years of inflation began to shrink our dollar and our savings. We believed that our nation’s resources were limitless until 1973, when we had to face a growing dependence on foreign oil.

These wounds are still very deep. They have never been healed. Looking for a way out of this crisis, our people have turned to the Federal government and found it isolated from the mainstream of our nation’s life. Washington, D.C., has become an island. The gap between our citizens and our government has never been so wide. The people are looking for honest answers, not easy answers; clear leadership, not false claims and evasiveness and politics as usual.

What you see too often in Washington and elsewhere around the country is a system of government that seems incapable of action. You see a Congress twisted and pulled in every direction by hundreds of well-financed and powerful special interests. You see every extreme position defended to the last vote, almost to the last breath by one unyielding group or another. You often see a balanced and a fair approach that demands sacrifice, a little sacrifice from everyone, abandoned like an orphan without support and without friends.

Often you see paralysis and stagnation and drift. You don’t like it, and neither do I. What can we do?

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 5 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

First of all, we must face the truth, and then we can change our course. We simply must have faith in each other, faith in our ability to govern ourselves, and faith in the future of this nation. Restoring that faith and that confidence to America is now the most important task we face. It is a true challenge of this generation of Americans.

One of the visitors to Camp David last week put it this way: “We’ve got to stop crying and start sweating, stop talking and start walking, stop cursing and start praying. The strength we need will not come from the White House, but from every house in America.”

We know the strength of America. We are strong. We can regain our unity. We can regain our confidence. We are the heirs of generations who survived threats much more powerful and awesome than those that challenge us now. Our fathers and mothers were strong men and women who shaped a new society during the Great Depression, who fought world wars, and who carved out a new charter of peace for the world.

We ourselves are the same Americans who just ten years ago put a man on the Moon. We are the generation that dedicated our society to the pursuit of human rights and equality. And we are the generation that will win the war on the energy problem and in that process rebuild the unity and confidence of America.

We are at a turning point in our history. There are two paths to choose. One is a path I’ve warned about tonight, the path that leads to fragmentation and self-interest. Down that road lies a mistaken idea of freedom, the right to grasp for ourselves some advantage over others. That path would be one of constant conflict between narrow interests ending in chaos and immobility. It is a certain route to failure.

All the traditions of our past, all the lessons of our heritage, all the promises of our future point to another path, the path of common purpose and the restoration of American values. That path leads to true freedom for our nation and ourselves. We can take the first steps down that path as we begin to solve our energy problem.

Energy will be the immediate test of our ability to unite this nation, and it can also be the standard around which we rally. On the battlefield of energy we can win for our nation a new confidence, and we can seize control again of our common destiny.

In little more than two decades we’ve gone from a position of energy independence to one in which almost half the oil we use comes from foreign countries, at prices that are going through the roof. Our excessive dependence on OPEC has already taken a tremendous toll on our economy and our people. This is the direct cause of the long lines which have made millions of you spend aggravating hours waiting for gasoline. It’s a cause of the increased inflation and unemployment that we now face. This intolerable dependence on foreign oil threatens our economic independence and the very security of our nation. The energy crisis is real. It is worldwide. It is a clear and present danger to our nation. These are facts and we simply must face them.

What I have to say to you now about energy is simple and vitally important.

Point one: I am tonight setting a clear goal for the energy policy of the United States. Beginning

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 6 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

this moment, this nation will never use more foreign oil than we did in 1977 — never. From now on, every new addition to our demand for energy will be met from our own production and our own conservation. The generation-long growth in our dependence on foreign oil will be stopped dead in its tracks right now and then reversed as we move through the 1980s, for I am tonight setting the further goal of cutting our dependence on foreign oil by one-half by the end of the next decade — a saving of over 4-1/2 million barrels of imported oil per day.

Point two: To ensure that we meet these targets, I will use my presidential authority to set import quotas. I’m announcing tonight that for 1979 and 1980, I will forbid the entry into this country of one drop of foreign oil more than these goals allow. These quotas will ensure a reduction in imports even below the ambitious levels we set at the recent Tokyo summit.

Point three: To give us energy security, I am asking for the most massive peacetime commitment of funds and resources in our nation’s history to develop America’s own alternative sources of fuel — from coal, from oil shale, from plant products for gasohol, from unconventional gas, from the sun.

I propose the creation of an energy security corporation to lead this effort to replace 2-1/2 million barrels of imported oil per day by 1990. The corporation I will issue up to $5 billion in energy bonds, and I especially want them to be in small denominations so that average Americans can invest directly in America’s energy security.

Just as a similar synthetic rubber corporation helped us win World War II, so will we mobilize American determination and ability to win the energy war. Moreover, I will soon submit legislation to Congress calling for the creation of this nation’s first solar bank, which will help us achieve the crucial goal of 20 percent of our energy coming from solar power by the year 2000.

These efforts will cost money, a lot of money, and that is why Congress must enact the windfall profits tax without delay. It will be money well spent. Unlike the billions of dollars that we ship to foreign countries to pay for foreign oil, these funds will be paid by Americans to Americans. These funds will go to fight, not to increase, inflation and unemployment.

Point four: I’m asking Congress to mandate, to require as a matter of law, that our nation’s utility companies cut their massive use of oil by 50 percent within the next decade and switch to other fuels, especially coal, our most abundant energy source.

Point five: To make absolutely certain that nothing stands in the way of achieving these goals, I will urge Congress to create an energy mobilization board which, like the War Production Board in World War II, will have the responsibility and authority to cut through the red tape, the delays, and the endless roadblocks to completing key energy projects.

We will protect our environment. But when this nation critically needs a refinery or a pipeline, we will build it.

Point six: I’m proposing a bold conservation program to involve every state, county, and city and every average American in our energy battle. This effort will permit you to build conservation into your homes and your lives at a cost you can afford.

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 7 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

I ask Congress to give me authority for mandatory conservation and for standby gasoline rationing. To further conserve energy, I’m proposing tonight an extra $10 billion over the next decade to strengthen our public transportation systems. And I’m asking you for your good and for your nation’s security to take no unnecessary trips, to use carpools or public transportation whenever you can, to park your car one extra day per week, to obey the speed limit, and to set your thermostats to save fuel. Every act of energy conservation like this is more than just common sense — I tell you it is an act of patriotism.

Our nation must be fair to the poorest among us, so we will increase aid to needy Americans to cope with rising energy prices. We often think of conservation only in terms of sacrifice. In fact, it is the most painless and immediate way of rebuilding our nation’s strength. Every gallon of oil each one of us saves is a new form of production. It gives us more freedom, more confidence, that much more control over our own lives.

So, the solution of our energy crisis can also help us to conquer the crisis of the spirit in our country. It can rekindle our sense of unity, our confidence in the future, and give our nation and all of us individually a new sense of purpose.

You know we can do it. We have the natural resources. We have more oil in our shale alone than several Saudi Arabias. We have more coal than any nation on Earth. We have the world’s highest level of technology. We have the most skilled work force, with innovative genius, and I firmly believe that we have the national will to win this war.

I do not promise you that this struggle for freedom will be easy. I do not promise a quick way out of our nation’s problems, when the truth is that the only way out is an all-out effort. What I do promise you is that I will lead our fight, and I will enforce fairness in our struggle, and I will ensure honesty. And above all, I will act. We can manage the short-term shortages more effectively and we will, but there are no short-term solutions to our long-range problems. There is simply no way to avoid sacrifice.

Twelve hours from now I will speak again in Kansas City, to expand and to explain further our energy program. Just as the search for solutions to our energy shortages has now led us to a new awareness of our Nation’s deeper problems, so our willingness to work for those solutions in energy can strengthen us to attack those deeper problems.

I will continue to travel this country, to hear the people of America. You can help me to develop a national agenda for the 1980s. I will listen and I will act. We will act together. These were the promises I made three years ago, and I intend to keep them.

Little by little we can and we must rebuild our confidence. We can spend until we empty our treasuries, and we may summon all the wonders of science. But we can succeed only if we tap our greatest resources — America’s people, America’s values, and America’s confidence.

I have seen the strength of America in the inexhaustible resources of our people. In the days to come, let us renew that strength in the struggle for an energy secure nation.

In closing, let me say this: I will do my best, but I will not do it alone. Let your voice be heard. Whenever you have a chance, say something good about our country. With God’s help and for the

3/13/14, 8:13 PMCrisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS

Page 8 of 8http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/carter-crisis/

Share

sake of our nation, it is time for us to join hands in America. Let us commit ourselves together to a rebirth of the American spirit. Working together with our common faith we cannot fail.

Thank you and good night.

3/13/14, 8:53 PMMemo for President Jimmy Carter from Jack Watson Regarding the Love Canal | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 1 of 2http://docsteach.org/documents/593309/print

Memo for President Jimmy Carter from Jack Watson Regarding the Love Canal 5/20/1980 Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary National Archives Identifier: 593309

Additional Details on this Document from our Online Exhibit the Digital Vaults: Emergency at Love Canal This memorandum to President Jimmy Carter recommends Federal assistance to relocate about 750 families from Love Canal, New York, near Niagara Falls, where a school and hundreds of houses had been built on top of 21,000 tons of toxic material. The next day, President Jimmy Carter declared Love Canal the first man-made national emergency.

3/13/14, 8:53 PMMemo for President Jimmy Carter from Jack Watson Regarding the Love Canal | DocsTeach: Documents

Page 2 of 2http://docsteach.org/documents/593309/print

Memo for President Jimmy Carter from Jack Watson Regarding the Love Canal (page 2)

  • Abandoned Automobiles and Other Debris Clutter an Acid Water and Oil Filled Five Acre Pond | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Aerial of Three Mile Island | DocsTeach: Documents
  • anti nuke
  • Anti-Inflation Program . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS
  • Asarco Smelter works near the U.S.-Mexican Border | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Chart1
  • Chart3
  • Children Play On Garbage Dump | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Comic book produced for General Electric Company titled “Adventures Inside the Atom.” | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Crisis of Confidence . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS
  • Cyclist in front of Environmental Center | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Drive-In Restaurant | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Example of Landfill at Bayonne, New Jersey | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Industrial Smog Blacks Out Homes | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Jack in the Box Drive Thru | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Letter from Grace Ledbetter to President Jimmy Carter Regarding Re-election | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Memo for President Jimmy Carter from Jack Watson Regarding the Love Canal | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Municipal Dump in The Bronx Reaches Almost To The Doorstep Of “Co-Op City” | DocsTeach: Documents
  • November 3, 1973 – Kissinger, Schlesinger, Colby, Moorer | DocsTeach: Documents
  • nukes
  • Passengers buying tickets (back ground) at Pennsylvania Station in New York City. | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Phelps Dodge Corp. Waste Rock Dump And Smelter Has Polluted The Stream With Iron Oxides | DocsTeach: Documents
  • President Jimmy Carter leaving [Three Mile Island] for Middletown, Pennsylvania | DocsTeach: Documents
  • production_v3
  • Proposed Energy Policy . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS
  • Raw Sewage is Discharged Into the Ocean Three Miles From Waikiki Beach. An EPA Loan To Build a Treatment Plant is in The Works | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Richard Nixon: Remarks About the Nation’s Energy Policy. – September 8, 1973
  • Sign of Energy Crisis | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Small “Tourist Trap” Gold-Mining Operation. An Old Steam Shovel is Used to Gather Gravel from Stream and Pour it into a Small Gold Mill. Tourists Pan for Ore at 50c a Pan. | DocsTeach: Documents
  • The Growing Gap
  • The Long Island Expressway in Queens, New York | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Twisted girders remain at the rear of a chemical storage building of the Pennwalt Corporation, after a June 20, 1974, fire and explosion | DocsTeach: Documents
  • Untreated Sewage From Manhattan, New York, Flowing Into The Hudson River | DocsTeach: Documents
  • War Department Press Release Announcing the Transfer of the Atomic Energy Program to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission | DocsTeach: Documents

Comments are closed.