1) What characterizes the Enli3ghtenment movement of 17th and 18th century Europe and America?
The enlightenment movement of 17th and 18th century also referred to as the age of reason was a philosophical movement which took place in Europe and North America. The features of the enlightenment include rising of ideas such as reason, liberty and methods which are scientific. Additionally it was skeptical of religion, majorly on powerful Catholic Church the monarchial and aristocrats (Jezzie 2016). The major participants of the enlightenment include Voltaire, David hume,Jean Jacques Roussaeauan and Adam Smith.The Enlightenment majorly emphasized on scientific methods, religious tolerance, education for whole, individual liberty, reason, secularization, and separation of the church from the state.
The philosophers had a believe that rational thinking can result in human improvement similarly it was a legitimate way of thinking. They argued that the ability to reason is of great importance and valuable human capacity. Reason can assist individuals to break from irrationality and learn to think reasonably and cab assist human to act in a reasonable manner. Enlightenment participants viewed reason as something that can help human equalize the effects on humanity, this is because everyone thought and behavior is guided by reason. Additionally they argued that human should target to increase their knowledge and reason more than emotional responses. They required universal education and a secular way of learning.
Additionally they advocated for a proof that something is true. To learn this they had a test of popular notions which scientifically controlled experiments and personal experience. These philosophers were skeptical in relation to divine right of kings and monarchies reference to the general scientific claims concerning the natural world, nature and reality of religious doctrines. Theologists had to seek their reforms in their faith while upholding their true faith in God. Religious tolerance they are of the opinion that people should worship freely. Additionally they emphasized on personal liberty, the concept argues that God gave all human their right and are free to act without any prohibition.
Empirism vs rationalism
They argued that all the human knowledge comes from senses and sensory experiments; they also believed that senses and untrustworthy knowledge came from the mind by conceiving ideas. They also defined enlightenment as the man’s emergence from self imposed nonage.
2) What is the purpose of Document 1?Document 1 is a video of operation of seventeenth century printing press invented in Cambridge Massachusetts in the year 1968.The purpose of the video is to show how printing has revolutionized since then. The printing press has emerged to be the most important inventions in the modern society. It has literary changed the field of literacy, communication, literature and education. It is also remarkable how art and craft of the printing press spread through Europe. Printing changed the appearance of written texts and influenced the spread of literacy and diversified texts available for a reader. The video shows how printing was done in those years.
3) What was the purpose of Document 2?
Document 2 shows Franklins greatest business accomplishment through publication of Poor Richard Almanac. The book contains interesting information for use for example calendar, prediction of weather, poems, sayings and demographics. Additionally it consisted of recipes, trivia advice proverbs and aphorisms. He considered this as a drive of instruction to individuals who were not in a position to purchase books. The Almanac had great information that was usedby families because it thought so much on secular values. Additionally farmers used the book to predict weather so that they can know the best time to plant their crops because they believed that weather was influenced by movement of planets and stars within the vicinity of the earth. Through his book the culture of America has greatly been influenced .Through his writings Franklin has bestowed the essence of morality, frugality, industry and humor to the Americans
4) What is or are the main points in Document 3
Document 3 is an except of a sermon given by Jonathan Edwards in 1741 ,the sermon gives an example of Puritans pathological obsession with hell and a god of anger. It shows repentance made to audience who had no doubt about the reality of hell and God who could judge mankind. It shows that sinners were exposed to destruction which is represented by floor sliding. Additionally sinners are expected for a sudden and unexpected destruction. It also implies that sinners are liable to fall of themselves without the fall for the other (Edwards, 2014). The reason why the sinners are not fallen already is that it is Gods appointment. Another point is that the devil stands already to fall upon the sinners and make them his own at the moment that God will allow them, the devil watches over the sinners they are ever by their side and the wrath of God is bestowed upon them. Similarly the sinners are in the souls of wicked men these hellish principles reigning that would rekindle fire into hell. Additionally there is no security for wicked men as they are visible to the means of death at hand. Another point is that natural men’s prudence and care to preserve the lives of sinners does not secure them at the moment. The divine providence and the universal experience is not a testimony to the sinners. The wisdom of men is not a security to their death.
SZALAY, Jezzie. “What was the enligtenment.” 7 July 2016, www.livescience.com/55327-the-enlightenment.html.
Edwards, Jonathan. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. A Sermon Preached at Enfield, July 8th,1741.” 2014, digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1053&context=etas.
Franklin, B. (2004). Poor Richard’s almanack. Barnes & Noble Publishing.
1) What characterizes the Enlightenment movement of 17th and 18th century Europe and America?
The Enlightenment movement of 17th and 18th century Europe and America were emphasizing reason and individualism. The characterizes of Enlightenment movement include the concept of freedom, the development of natural science, and the rationality.
2) What is the purpose of Document 1?
The document 1 is explain how the first printing machine look like and how to use this. In my opinion, the first printing machine make the huge impact to the enlightenment movement in 17th and 18th century of Europe and America, and the purpose is offer the huge advancement for the free speech. People can know more information over the world and spread their ideas to everyone through the printing paper. Also, the printing machine can help religion to expand and strong, because lots of Bibles was being spread to over the world through this type of new invention thereby more Christians were joined. Therefore, the first printing machine was collected into the museum right now because It were push the new revolution in that times.
3) What was the purpose of Document 2? In document 2, this was one page in Poor Richard’s Almanack which published by Benjamin Franklin. The purpose of this book was using for entertaining which include useful information , such as : weather forecaster, puzzle, poems and daily life tips . Likewise, Benjamin Franklin want to instill Enlightenment values for everyone through this book.
4) What is or are the main points in Document 3? In document 3, “Sinners in the Hands of an angry God” was writing by Jonathan Edwards. The main point of this sermon is persuading those people, who was lost the faith of god, refuel back the fire in believes God. He is trying to use the fearful of hell to make people repent and want to go heaven with the God.
1) Enlightenment movement in the 17th and 18th century: The things that stand out in this time of history is the growing population of literate people because of the popularity in growth of the printing press. Through these means, people were reading more, perhaps much more than expected and analyzing what they were reading. When we analyze we tend to reflect on things, we tend to question and seek clear answers. Even when we bump into a new word, we look it up in the dictionary to know its meaning. This new source of knowledge caused for the colonists to challenge the established British churches. Also, in this time, enlightenment manifested best through scientific observation. Benjamin Franklin believed that educated men should have the ability to learn through it.
2) Purpose of Document 1? The purpose of document 1 is to reflect on the flexibility we all have today in putting the word out. It wasn’t that easy back then. Hard work was put into it. Analyzing the knowledge the person had to have. The person must of had the literacy to make sure not to misspell a word. The printing press was quite big, it was more likely to be a man’s job than a woman’s job from all the force it needed to have a well pressed paper to have legible letters. In today’s society, Donald Trump is posting tweets perhaps from the very own comfort of his bed while still wearing pajamas, mean while 300 hundred years ago, many men were up late making sure the word liberty was spelled correctly and well aligned to print 100 copies before sunrise.
3) Purpose of Document 2? Document 2 looks like some sort of book of self improvement. I would say the purpose of this document ( at least this page) is to encourage the reader to have a plan no matter how good or bad is the case. There is some printing I don’t understand, but I feel its purpose was to persuade.
4) Main points of Document 3? Some main points I see in document 3 is that God is the almighty authority. Whom ever this might have concerned, they understood that God had the last word regarding their destiny. From this document I’ll like to point out that punishment was not yet placed but was expected. Once punishment had come, nothing could be done than let punishment manifest.