Integrated Communication Marketing

Integrated Communication Marketing

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

1. Background Brief…………………………………………………………………………………………….3

1. Service/Brand Description………………………………………………………………………………..3

1. Brand Positioning…………………………………………………………………………………………….4

1. Targeted market segment………………………………………………………………………………….4

1. Two Communication Objectives………………………………………………………………………..5

1. Four Advertisement Strengths………………………………………………………………………………….5

1. Four Advertisement Weaknesses……………………………………………………………………………..6

1. Media Used……………………………………………………………………………………………………………7

4. Four Media Strengths……………………………………………………………………………………….7

4. Four Media Weaknesses…………………………………………………………………………………..8

1. Recommendations to use the Newspaper Media and include Online Interactive Media.…9

1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

1. References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

Executive Summary

Four advertisement strengths include a sufficient, relevant and detailed service information based on the Stage 1 in Consumer information Processing Model and Mehrabian-Russell Model of Affect where the cognitive component is concerned. Secondly, the advertising content that involves the service, fulfils the functional and symbolic aspects of meeting social needs, ego needs and self-actualisation of the target market, supporting two out of the three aspects of positioning to benefit the brand. Thirdly, the print advertisement is high in credibility and it adds value as testimonial evidences based on the VALS framework that comprises of lifestyle, attitudes and values. Lastly, these travel packages is at the maturity stage, stage 3 of the Product-Life Cycle. The growth rate is reduced comparing to stage 2 but Super Travels is saturated.

Four advertisement weaknesses include the overloading words affects the selective attention, belonging to Stage 2 of the Consumer information Processing Model. The interference creates visual clutters. Secondly, the deficiency in stimulating sensory inputs, especially sight, based on Hedonic Experiential Model. It is low in the persuading element as a marketing communication function. Thirdly, weak in terms of TOMA as the brand logo and the brand image is too small to be seen on the advertisement. Lastly, using the Elaboration Likelihood Model, more work needs to be done in terms of brand development as the peripheral cues and the message-argument needs to build up.

Four media strengths include local newspaper media encompasses a wider target market. It involves all literate people who can understand and interpret the text. It has no psychographic or demographic considerations as all can afford and choose to buy. Secondly, the newspaper advertisement can be placed near to related newspaper articles to show compatibility with the product/service. Thirdly, newspaper advertising reflects timeliness as the news is published daily. It presents what has the company has to offer for a specific period of time. E.g. Time promotion for budget airlines. The newspaper articles will not repeat and change for the next day. Lastly, a detailed version can be drafted include the use of colours and product or service slogans to lure the desirable target market.

Four media weaknesses include a change in the habits of the newspapers readers as the digital newspapers are going online. As technology advances, tech-savvy people would rather buy digital newspapers as compared to print newspaper. Secondly, printed newspaper media is high in noise clutter based on the Communication Process Model. Thirdly, mediocre production quality that results being a low selective medium among the target market. Lastly, content censorship by the media authorities based on the socio-political aspects of the environmental analysis.

Introduction

This newspaper advertisement (The Straits Times Editor 2018, 2) was taken from The Straits Times, Classified advertisements section, subsection Travel, Page 2 (Super Travels 2018).

Background Brief

Newspaper advertisement features the travel packages that Super Travel offers to the target market. The size of the advertisement occupies half a page of The Straits Times. Behind a white background, the duration of travel, location of travel, departure dates, price of the travel package, with occasion small destination pictures and airline brand logo surrounding the price are printed in black. Super Travels brand logo, accreditation and the awards received are located the top left and bottom right hand corner of the advertisement. Super Travels has included a preventive imitator measure by having a white flag that says, “Exclusive Starter. Please Do Not Copy” to deter market competitors. Email, Fax numbers, telephone numbers, online booking website address and company address as points of contact, printed in white font, behind a black background. Tone contrast is used as designing element. The brand name is in both English and Mandarin to engage the bilinguals (Ashley and Tuten 2015, 15). The advertising space is complete filled to maximise space to be value-for-money (Hanssens and Pauwels 2016, 173) and satisfy informational needs.

Service and Brand Description

The travel agency markets the service of holiday group tours to the target market to satisfy social, esteem and self-actualisation needs. The demographics of the target market include people with age range from 16 to 70. Both male and female. Single and married. Education level is secondary and above. It involves all races and ethnicities in Singapore who are students, working executives and working professionals. Using Roy Morgan’s value segmentation, the conventional family life is chosen because the majority of the target market are in this category. Some of the characteristics include high brand loyalty, ‘value-of-money’ oriented, risk averse and reliability oriented.

The services they are selling are travel packages to various parts of the world. Price range from $188 to $6388. The selling price has factored in the travel distance, duration of stay and the niche factors of the tourist location. The segmentation made is primarily based on the geography of the desirable location. The information is presented in a compressed format as part of the budgeting. The price remains competitive comparing with market competitors like Chan Brothers, Dynasty Travel and CTC. The distribution channels carries a wide variety of countries across the globe, including many tourist destinations that are considered international hotspots. It could be considered as a luxury service experience. The service is to provide a pleasantly unforgettable experience with relaxing and exciting elements involved during the planned trips. The target market are co-producers of values in the travelling experience based on process theory under the service-dominant logic framework. The destinations serve as tangible evidence to generate positive disconfirmation as these are places of interest are wanted by the target market (Bruhn and Schnebelen 2017, 464).

Brand Positioning

Super Travels travel packages serve the functional needs of traveling in different places. The symbolic needs includes social bonding, status and self-esteem needs. The experiential needs includes the passion to enjoy foreign cuisine, shop, build new relationships around the world and appreciate the foreign culture different from the home country due to global geo-demographic differences. Super Travels has to change the positioning to a high quality at a lower price range compared to her market competitors.

Targeted Market Segment

The demographics include people with age range from 16 to 70, complying the Australia’s Code of Ethics strictly. Both male and female. Single and married. Education level is secondary and above. It involves all races and ethnicities in Singapore who are students, working executives and working professionals.

Psychographic segmentation refers to the information about consumers’ attitudes, values, motivations and lifestyles that relate to buying behaviours in a particular service category. From this demographics, two main groups of target market are segmented based on psychographics, with the first group belonging to the conventional family life travellers. These travellers are rushing for time and they can only go for holiday when they are on leave. They have a low zone of tolerance and they value punctuality, accuracy in the travel itinerary strongly. The Type A people are in there and they tend to be more ambitious as they want to see something better to get the value for money (Villanueva et al. 2008, 48). They are highly individualistic.

The second group belongs to the socially aware travellers who enjoys social bonding. They belonged to the retirees/recreational group who want to spend their time with fulfilment to satisfy both their social and self-actualisation needs (Nelson-Field and Riebe 2010, 51). They travel as a hobby and share a greater zone of tolerance as compared to the first group. They are opinionated about themselves and social issues, easily contented and they usually carry Type B personalities. They are mentally young, optimistic and highly collectivistic (Soares et al. 2007, 277).

Two Communication Objectives

To achieve 2000 units of travel packages sold by 18 June 2018 and to increase 80% of brand awareness by 18 June 2018, providing a one month gap from the publishing date. The two objectives serve to evaluate both the effectiveness of the advertising campaign and the use of the media through sales targets.

Four Advertisement Strengths

Firstly, there is sufficient, relevant and detailed service information based on the Stage 1 in Consumer information Processing Model (CPM) principles and Mehrabian-Russell Model of Affect where the cognitive component is concerned. High in informing, possibly reminding as a function in marketing communications. This is supported by clearly stating the dates available, the price and the duration of the trip and the country and the state. The advertisement uses black and white contrast in the background effectively to differentiate the components in the print advertisement. E.g. the contact details are separated from the travel details (Danaher and John 2011, 6).

Secondly, the advertising content that involves the service, fulfils the functional and symbolic aspects of meeting social needs, ego needs and self-actualisation of the target market, supporting two out of the three aspects of positioning to benefit the brand. It is evident from the names of the places of interests in the different parts of the world with the traveling dates (Palmeira et al. 2016, 488).

Thirdly, the print advertisement is high in credibility and it adds value as testimonial evidences based on the VALS framework that comprises of lifestyle, attitudes and values. This is supported by the awards, accreditations received by NATAS and IATA and the 40 years of track record being a market player in the group tours and travel industry (Hudson 2010, 444).

Lastly, these travel packages is at the maturity stage, stage 3 of the Product-Life Cycle. The growth rate is reduced comparing to stage 2 but Super Travels is saturated. At this stage, Super Travels can do service extension or sales promotion to attract the target market so that the decline phase is slowed down or reversed. By changing the marketing strategy and mix through advertising and exploring new markets, Super Travels maintain the market shares in the industry as a star or cash cow and avoid losing out to market competitors based on BCG matrix (Jayanti and Raghunath 2018, 87).

Four Advertisement Weaknesses

Firstly, the overloading words affects the selective attention, belonging to Stage 2 of the Consumer information Processing Model. The interference caused consequent domino effect that negatively affects comprehension and creates unnecessary visual clutters. It appears as noise on first glance. Consequently, it affects the communication outcome in terms of brand associates, brand awareness, behaviour and attitude change. The target market has to put in an attempt to look closer to receive the message as a receiver through the message based on the Communication Process Model. Based on the dual-coding theory, there is a lack of visual representation in this advertisement (Schroeder and Borgerson 2015, 1723).

Secondly, the deficiency in stimulating sensory inputs, especially sight, based on Hedonic Experiential Model. It is low in the persuading element as a marketing communication function. The sales force does not differentiate the advertisement from her competitors using the modern communication model to attract the target market. Based on the Russell’s Model of Affect, in order for approach to occur, a combination of pleasantness and arousal must be present. This advertisement appears boring as the eyes of the target market are not stimulated. The cause is due to the absence of colour and brand image, combining with the previous problem. Coupled with small font size, it creates a negative disconfirmation and an avoidance effect on the first impression (LeBoeuf et al. 2014, 420).

Thirdly, print advertisement is weak in terms of TOMA as the brand logo and the brand image is too small to be seen on the advertisement. The advertising is ineffective according to the progression from bottom to the top in the Brand Awareness Pyramid Model. There are limited obvious cues to support brand recall and brand recognition apart from the half-page size of the advertisement. It reflects low brand loyalty based on Hierarchy-of-Effects Model of Advertising. The content presentation did not generate sufficient positive beliefs and attitudes towards the brand, what is visible is the clutter of words and numbers (Althuizen 2017, 5).

Lastly, using the Elaboration Likelihood Model, more work needs to be done in terms of brand development as the peripheral cues and the message-argument needs to build up. Based on MOA, the opportunity is low. By reading the advertisement, the motivation may also be affected because it is too wordy for an average consumer. The point of focus is missing and it makes the EL very low, resulting in a less enduring attitude change. Furthermore, the messages are in small print and peripheral cues did not generate the experiential needs. People who have never been to the host country before cannot visualise how the host country looks like through the print advertisement. As a result, the attitude towards the brand is overall negative. The likability factor is low as there are no colourful pictures to complement the words and appeal to the target market through emotional-based persuasion, compared to Instagram that uses the Hedonic-Experiential Model (Büttner et al. 2014, 1026).

Media Used

Non-coloured newspaper advertising can be categorised as traditional press advertising print media.

Four Media Strengths

Firstly, local newspaper media encompasses a wider target market. It involves all literate people who can understand and interpret the text. It has no psychographic or demographic considerations as all can afford and choose to buy. Sales are not restricted by the different social classes and the cost of the newspapers is relatively cheaper for an average consumer. Usually, the target market has the correct mental state to comprehend and process information, provided that the font size is reasonable (Stilley et al. 2010, 34).

Secondly, the newspaper advertisement can be placed near to related newspaper articles to show compatibility with the product/service. E.g. Newspaper articles featuring Singapore Tourism Board can have travel advertisements at the side because they belonged to the same genre. Consequently, people who are interested in travel would pay attention to the advertisement, using the principles in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (Kitchen et al. 2014, 2033).

Thirdly, newspaper advertising reflects timeliness as the news is published daily. It presents what has the company has to offer for a specific period of time. E.g. Time promotion for budget airlines. The newspaper articles will not repeat and change for the next day. Speed plays an important part as the shorter the time between putting an advertisement and having it published, the higher the relevance level that the advertisement is related to the big events and market developments. Advertisements, that appear after the promotion or the event is over, is considered expired and they have no commercial value (Stephen and Toubia 2010, 215).

Lastly, a detailed version can be drafted include the use of colours and product or service slogans to lure the desirable target market and reach TOMA in Brand Awareness Pyramid, in CPM and Hedonic Experiential Model, the approach in Russell’s Model of Affect and consequently, brand loyalty in the Hierarchy-of-effects model of advertising (Goodrich 2011, 417).

Four Media Weaknesses

Firstly, there is a change in the habits of the newspapers readers as the digital newspapers are going online. As technology advances, tech-savvy people would rather buy digital newspapers as compared to print newspaper. As a result, the demand of print newspaper would decrease in the long term as the younger generation prefer to read newspapers from smartphones and tablets as it saves physical space. Furthermore, digital newspaper has the preventive and accessibility properties that makes it free from potential physical damages like tearing, spilled with coffee etc. The digital newspaper can be read using different forms of digital devices as long as it is subscribed by the same user. The print newspaper would lose its competitive advantage compared to the digital version (Kumar and Pansari 2016, 497).

Secondly, printed newspaper media is high in noise clutter based on the Communication Process Model. Mental clutter affects clarity in terms of reading, retrieving and understanding of the given information based on the Consumer Information Process Model. Consequently, the target market will be hesitant to take action because the claims may be bias or exaggerated. Hence, it stops them from making a purchase. Moreover, tangible clutters include tiny font size printed on the newspaper which the elderly, who have sight problems, may need to use reading glasses for better reading quality. Digital newspaper overcame this problem because there is a zooming function available to help them (Turner 2017, 606).

Thirdly, mediocre production quality that results being a low selective medium among the target market. The paper and the toner is made of cheap materials where newspapers are vulnerable to weather conditions. The paper quality can be damaged by the sun where the newspaper becomes yellow. The print can be smudged when there is newspaper media is exposed to the rain. Hence, it adds stress to the people who wishes to archive the information for future use. Sources have suggested that the newspaper media is a food source for household pests such as cockroaches and termites. Therefore, it is not advisable to keep them for too long (Lehmann et al. 2011, 155).

Lastly, content censorship by the media authorities. In Singapore, Media Development Authority sets the guidelines to Singapore Press Holdings as to what can be advertised. Certain sensitive newspaper advertisement content that are related to vices like sex for emotional appeal or associated with the inquisition of the state political power will be banned. Social control affects information liberty and it has resulted in a limitation towards freedom of expression. In this aspect, a low zone of tolerance towards uncensored information is shown. Hence, it may not be appealing to some minorities in the target market (Seggie and Griffith 2009, 122).

Recommendations to use the Newspaper Media and include Online Interactive Media

1) The messages across all mediums must be consistent so as not to confuse customers, target market and employees. Consistency in terms of brand integrity where price, promotion, distribution channels and service provided are explained clearly to minimise ambiguity and avoid negative disconfirmation. If the service demonstrates quality as it advertises, showing “what you see is really what you get”, positive disconfirmation would lead to brand loyalty and customer retention long-term based on the Hierarchy-of-Effects Model of Advertising. Print advertisement should be included in The New Paper and Today Newspaper. The scheduling would follow a continuous schedule based on the Recency Principle so that there is brand recall instead of no awareness amongst the target market based on the Brand Awareness Pyramid Model.

2) Both traditional and non-traditional media must be used to cater to the different media preferences. For the type A and the type B, the approach must be different due to the differences in lifestyle, AIO components. Specifically consider the different attitudes, values and opinions in a conventional family. The advertisement must address to their needs directly considering all the components in the MECCAS model. Components include leverage point, creative strategy, brand attributes, value orientation and brand consequences to suit the target market.

3) Consumers should include existing customers, target market and internal employees to expand the market size and maximise the marketing coverage. Super Travel should understand the market and consider how they would response to the marketing strategies. By satisfying the two different groups in the target market, revenue is maximised as all are taken care of (Kim et al. 2016, 1399). It should follow the persuasion cycle from affective to conative to cognitive based on the tri-component model of attitudes (Grimmer and Woolley 2012, 231), and to induce high involvement based on The Foote, Cone and Belding grid. An integration of CPM or HEM would cater to a wider target market as they can buy because of either emotional or rational reasons. Sometimes, both are needed and it is subjected to content sequencing, creativity level in the content (Sood and Kumar 2017, 932) and how the information is perceived to achieve the desirable effect based on Innovation adoption Model. E.g. Emotional affect or memory retention (Choi et al. 2010, 91). Consequently, the message should be influential strong to create the need, impulse or urge in the form of purchase behaviour or repeat purchase by just doing it (Ots and Nyilasy 2017, 490).

4) Behaviourial targeting of the small group of 3-10 pax and the large group of 11 pax and more. The size of the group will determine the duration of the trip. The more people participate in the trip, the longer the travel period to give more value to the target market who has decided to travel with Super Travels.

5) Print advertisement could have been audited through pretesting using portfolio test and readability test before it is published. If budget permits, it should be fully occupied on the first page, coloured to increase the probability of being noticed. The content should have adequate spacing and a strong brand positioning statement that differentiate Super Travels from the market competitors to maximise the influence of the target market’s behaviour positively.

6) Post-testing by recognition, enquiry and recall through focus groups to critically analyse the problems of the advertisement. The IMC management process include strategy implementation and assessing of effectiveness to determine feasibility so as to reduce churn and brand switching (Danaher and John 2011, 6). They identify themselves to the brand (Tuškej et al. 2013, 53).Otherwise, it would be a one-time transactional relationship because of the expectations, performance and employee gaps involved. It certainly falls short of the criteria and the result is high customer churn rate, negative disconfirmation.

7) Content redesign using colour and themes and taking up the 3-months contract to increase the frequency of the advertisement. It takes time for the target market to have the guaranteed brand awareness (TOMA) as they have to transit from unaware to brand recognition based on the Hierarchy-of-Effects Model of Advertising (Keller 2009, 139). From brand recognition to brand recall. The advertising frequency should maintain once brand awareness is secured based on brand awareness pyramid during the mature stage to prevent incoming market competitors. Advertisement must be impressionable with content marketing. Consequently, the advertisement should lead to an exciting state of pleasantness and arousal/relaxing within the target market, based on the emotional approach in Hedonic Experiential Model and Russell’s Model of Affect (Jang and Namkung 2009, 451).

8) The service should have more functionality, symbolic and experiential properties instead of just being travel agency selling travel package in the advertisement (de Vries et al. 2017, 1). Instead, advertisement should feature the scenic places as the focus instead of travel details to address the emotional aspects.

9) Using smart interactive to engage target audience using online app technology (Yadav and Pavlou 2014, 20). E.g. Expedia and Trivago use online booking and packages the tour to include air tickets, pick up from host airport and hotel. Instagram can be used to promote the beautiful sceneries in different places. A combination of Social Media Marketing with content marketing as the essence, introducing dynamic content with a positively-intended positioning statement through collaboration would make the advertisement more captivating to the target market (Moon et al. 2010, 108).

10) Super Travels should have more online presence using platforms like LinkedIn to expand networking (Trusov et al. 2009, 90). Direct ethical marketing and putting in effort in the online flyer advertisement to promote cheap travel could work. The target market decide on the spot and booking the travel package online after choosing the travel time and location. The sales, the traffic and clicks of the app and the corporate website can be monitored using Google Analytics to determine if the strategy is working.

11) The face of the celebrity appearing on the advertisement appeals to target market that lean towards the HEM side as celebrity endorser appeals to the fans of their beloved idol. Public relations in the form of having the celebrity as the tour guide or ambassador (Turner 2017, 605) showing places of interest as an advertising method could work well especially targeting those idol supporters (Spotts et al. 2014, 1986).

Conclusion

Colour and font size play an attractiveness role in bringing out the advertisement as a competitive advantage against other market competitors print advertisement to attract based on the AIDA Model. The content should be persuasive by including less words and content marketing can be adopted using themes like “freedom”, “rainbow” and “bonding” to address the needs of the target market based on the Asian cultural orientation. A holiday may appear luxurious for some when affordability is concerned (Kim and Ko 2012, 1480). Reasonable emotional appeal based on HEM and VIEW model through packaging or content redesign could promote better brand awareness and consequent brand loyalty (Nitzan, Irit, and Barak Libai 2011, 24) based on Hierarchy-of-Effects Model of Advertising (Bart, Andrew T. Stephen, and Miklos Sarvary 2014, 270). The challenges include increasing budgeting cost and good advertisement positioning have to be put into consideration as colour has a surcharge (Advertisement Rates from the Classified Section 2016) at premium rates. Super Travels has to consider the increasing frequency of advertising needed to achieve TOMA in the brand awareness pyramid by repetition. Consequently, brand integrity supports future Super Travels advertising campaigns to remain effective to achieve customers delight by complying with the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 is administered by ACCC in Australia. The Price Competition Act, administered by CASE, is applicable in the Singapore context. Applying SIVA, Super Travels should have viral marketing tools in the future (Akpinar Berger 2017, 318) that speak with one voice and become more online-oriented in this information era. It helps Super Travels to generate positive value perceptions, and provide more 24/7 access in terms of online bookings/content with secured payment facilities like Visa, MasterCard and PayPal to run the business as usual. A stronger brand name leads to higher brand equity. Ultimately, the success of the advertising is measured by the achievement of the stated communication objectives based on the objective-and-task budgeting method by increasing the Customer Lifetime Value (Batra and Keller 2016, 122).

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Madhavaram, Sreedhar, Vishag Badrinarayanan, and Robert E. McDonald. 2013. “Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) and Brand Identity as Critical Components of Brand Equity Strategy: A Conceptual Framework and Research Propositions.” Journal of Advertising 34(4): 69-80. doi: 10.1080/00913367.2005.10639213.

Moon, Sangkil, Paul K. Bergey, and Dawn Iacobucci. 2010. “Dynamic Effects among Movie Ratings, Movie Revenues, and Viewer Satisfaction.” Journal of Marketing 74(1): 108-121. doi: url: http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/stable/20619083.

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Super Travels Private Limited. 2017. Super Travels | Let’s Plan Your Europe, America and Asia Tour. Accessed May 22. https://super-travels.com/.

Super Travels Private Limited. 2018. “Sincere thanks to all of you for such positive overwhelming reviews about your tour experience with us 😍.” Facebook, May 22. https://www.facebook.com/TravelwithSuper/.

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Yadav, Manjit S., and Paul A. Pavlou. 2014. “Marketing in Computer-Mediated Environments: Research Synthesis and New Directions.” Journal of Marketing 78 (1): 20-40. doi: https://doi-org.libproxy.murdoch.edu.au/10.1509/jm.12.0020.

Zhang, Yuchi, Michael Trusov, Andrew T. Stephen, and Zainab Jamal. 2017. “Online Shopping and Social Media: Friends or Foes?” Journal of Marketing 81 (6): 24-41. doi: https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.14.0344.

Appendices

The Straits Times editor. 2018. The Straits Times Classified, May 18. https://www.sphclass.com.sg/

The advertisement rates from the Classified Section of The Straits Times. 2016.

Observation of online consumer behaviour using Google trends where interest over time is indicated. The Y-axis shows search interest relative to the highest point on the chart for the given region and time. A magnitude of 100 represents the peak popularity for the term. Peak happens near public holidays and school holidays. A magnitude of 50 represents the term is half as popular. A score of 0 means no data available.

A sample view of Google Analytics where different online traffic are recorded and put into organised quantitative data.

A Super Travels advertisement flyer during NATAS Travel Fair 2017 proves that colour matters in terms of visual appeal in print advertising.

Marking Guide

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Campaign Critique Score Table

Background Brief

· Product/Brand description

· Specific needs fulfilled

· Targeted market segment

· Communication objectives

Marks
Media summary

· Approach used

· Full extent of campaign

· Strengths and Weaknesses

Recommendations for improvements based on summary
Quality of writing

· Clarity

· Concise

· Avoid grammar and spelling errors

Overall report presentation

· Correct formatting

· Appropriate appendices

· Extent of references

Total marks

10


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