Juvenile Justice System Paper DUE 02/23S NO PREWRITTEN OR PLAIGERISM

Juvenile Justice System Paper DUE 02/23S NO PREWRITTEN OR PLAIGERISM

Hello Everyone!

I would like to provide some basic APA information for assistance with your writing.

The use of in-text citations and the full source reference at the end complement each other.

Why use in-text citations?

We use brief in-text citations to indicate to the reader who said it and when they said.

The year is important because it serves 2 purposes.  It provides a context.  What was said in 1974 may be different in 2015.  The author may also have more than one source.  The year often helps to distinguish between the works by the same author.

We also want to keep the in-text citation very brief.  We do not want to disrupt the reading.  As such, just the last name and year is usually all that is needed.

We do not use initials.

But providing just the last names and the year, the reader should be able to match the in-text citation to the full source reference at the end.  Below are a few variations of the basic format.


Blah blah blah (Champion, Merlo, & Benekos, 2013).

“Blah blah blah” (Champion, Merlo, & Benekos, 2013, p. #).

According to Siegel and Welsh (2015), blah blah blah.

Siegel and Welsh (2015) argued that “blah blah blah” (p. #).


In the above, notice the placement of the commas.  Also, notice that the year always goes with the name.

When quoting, the page or paragraph number is required.

“Blah blah blah” (Champion, Merlo, & Benekos, 2013, p. #).

Siegel and Welsh (2015) argued that “blah blah blah” (p. #).

If the author is not known, we use an abbreviated title.  The title is abbreviated because we want to keep the citation short. We only need part of the title to match it up with the full source reference on a reference page. Just use 2 – 3 words of the title. Notice that there are quotation marks around the abbreviated title. The comma also goes inside the last quotation mark.

Blah blah blah (“Abbreviated title,” year).

If the year is not known, use n.d. for the year.

Blah blah blah (Last name, n.d.).

Full source references:

Champion, D. J., Merlo, A. V., & Benekos, P. J. (2013). The juvenile justice system: Delinquency,

Processing, and the Law (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Siegel, L. J. & Welsh, B. C. (2015). Juvenile Delinquency: The core (5th ed.). Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth – Cengage Learning.

NOTE:  You do not need to cite your work in the participation posts.  However, I strongly encourage students to cite when possible.  This is a “best practice” and a great habit to develop………..  image1.png

You will need to use APA in the assignments where appropriate.  So why not practice in the participation posts?

Also, remember that the writing center is available to help you with writing style and APA.

Also, visit the following web site for help with APA: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

I encourage you to copy and paste my example above and use them when creating your own in-text citations.  By learning a few simple rules and understanding “why” everything is the way it is, you should have no problem with APA.

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