literature review table

literature review table

International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark. 20: 84–96 (2015) Published online 9 January 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/nvsm.1519

Money donations intentions among Muslim donors: an extended theory of planned behavior model Muhammad Kashif1* and Ernest Cyril De Run2 1GIFT Business School, GIFT University, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan 2Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

• The investigation into determinants of money donation intentions while employing an extended theory of planned behavior model is limited to developed country contexts. However, given the chal- lenges facing charitable organizations and scant theoretical evidence from developing world, such an examination can contribute pragmatically. The current study establishes the impact of subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior, and attitude on respondents’ money donation intentions to charities in Pakistan. The respondents (N=223), a non-student population living in the city of Gujranwala, completed a survey. The collected data are analyzed by means of a multivar- iate analysis, which was comprised of regression and correlation. The results reveal a strong support to the extended theory of planned behavior model in establishing the relationship between identified independent and dependent variables in a developing country context of Pakistan. The study con- tributes to the establishment of a few strategies, which are useful for managers working in charita- ble organizations to attract and retain donors to support several causes.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Introduction

The public donations significantly contribute toward helping the poor and needy people living across the globe (Cheung & Chan, 2000) and can take several forms such as formation of a welfare trust, pro- motion of education for children, development of an understanding of religion, and other welfare

*Correspondence to: Muhammad Kashif, Assistant Professor of Marketing, GIFT University, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan. E-mail: kashif@gift.edu.pk

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

activities to raise the standards of living. The role of charitable organizations in helping the underprivi- leged has been highly appreciated (Edin & Lein, 1998). However, charitable organizations are cur- rently struggling to find ways to stimulate private do- nations. In this regard, philanthropists believe that psychology of donor is a critical element that must be studied in detail to develop market-driven strate- gies to counter current thrill. The donors, whether poor or rich, donate money (Wiepking & Breeze, 2012), which indicates that financial capacity is not

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85Predicting money donations among Muslims

the stronger determinant of charity donations as poor people also donate generously (Avdeyeva, Burgetova, & Welch, 2006). The behavior of a donor to donate money largely depends upon cultural sys- tems, religion, and a few personal factors (Ranganathan & Henley, 2008). Because culture and religious beliefs are practiced among the members of a society, these trigger a particular behavior that comprises various personal, social, and psychologi- cal cues. An understanding of these personal, social, and psychological elements is pivotal to devise mar- keting plans that ultimately motivate donors to do- nate generously (Knowles, Hyde, & White, 2012). Muslims around the world are obliged to contrib-

ute significantly in the redistribution of one’s wealth in the form of charity (Kroessin, 2007). Islamic teach- ings strongly stress the need to pay zakat (obligatory money charity only for those Muslims who have the financial capacity to donate) to those who are needy at an annual rate of 2.5% on one’s disposable income (Khan, 2012). Pakistan and countries alike in the Muslim world have their own strong cultural history and a religious background, which is an interesting avenue to study the money donation behavior. The Muslims are also advised to provide financial support to poor and needy people; as in one of the Quranic verses, Allah Sub ānahu Wa Ta’Ala said:

For those who give to men and women in charity and loan to Allah a Beautiful Loan, it shall be increased (to their credit) and they shall have (besides) a liberal reward. [Al-Quran, Chapter 57, Verse 18].

Aside from the perspective of culture, religion, and belief systems, amount of money donations significantly impacts the decisions pertaining to mar- keting management of charitable organizations. To- day, nonprofit charity organizations heavily depend on the public generosity to donate money and time (Lee & Chang, 2007), which needs careful investi- gation. This is because government funding to chari- table causes is reduced significantly (Alexander, 2000), and charitable organizations are under

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extreme financial pressures to manage funds. There is a severe need felt to raise funds in order to support poor and needy people, which, if not fulfilled prop- erly, can seriously damage the efforts made by chari- table organizations (Sargeant, Ford, & West, 2000). In addition to external pressures, the charitable

and nonprofit organizations also face internal chal- lenges such as institutional isomorphism, resource dependence, and organizational slack (Kistruck, Qureshi, & Beamish, 2013). Many charitable orga- nizations are internally focused systems where market-driven strategies are absent. The charitable organizations usually do not have a professional workforce to merit marketing and financial manage- ment decisions. In order to cope with the envi- ronmental threats, charitable organizations need comprehensive marketing plans to take a leap for- ward (Liu & Ko, 2012), but it strongly depends on understanding the motives behind charitable giving (Lemmens et al., 2005). By understanding donor behavior, charitable orga-

nizations can earn certain marketing advantages such as service innovation and design, reputation equity, and an increased level of donor satisfaction (Modi, 2012). The studies in developing countries are limited to the identification of the role of demo- graphics such as age, gender, and income to influ- ence charity donation intentions (Lord, 1981; Burgoyne, Young, & Walker, 2005; Lee & Chang, 2007). Because much of research has focused on identifying the demographics of donors, most studies do not imply a theoretical framework that can help in sketching a complete picture of dona- tion intentions (Greenslade & White, 2005). The investigation must cover major tenants of behavior, which are mainly covered by psychosocial theories of behavior such as the theory of planned behavior (TPB); however, the investigation of donation intentions based on the extended TPB (ETPB) model is limited (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith & McSweeney, 2007) and almost absent in the case of a Muslim country context such as Pakistan. The charity organizations in Asia can benefit from such studies, especially in efforts to develop some

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86 Muhammad Kashif and Ernest Cyril De Run

marketing plans that can set the tone to grow fur- ther by keeping abreast with consumer needs (Park & Lee, 2009). It is also notable that the sociocultural environment of Western and Asian countries is dif- ferent, which must be acknowledged while investi- gating and proposing marketing strategies to charitable and nonprofit organizations operating in Asia (Park et al., 2010).

The context of study: Pakistan

Philanthropy is a strong cultural and religious norm in Pakistan where one of the world’s largest Muslim populations resides. Since its inception in the year 1947, Pakistani corporate and entrepreneurial phi- lanthropists are able to develop world-class institu- tions. The top three donating behaviors among Pakistanis are donating money, volunteering time, and helping a stranger. According to a report pub- lished by the World Giving Index, Pakistan as a coun- try has climbed the rankings, from the 142nd position in the previous years to the 34th position recently. Further to the nation’s pride, Pakistan ranks very high in terms of the gross domestic product-to-giving ratio where 5% of the gross do- mestic product is spent on charitable donations. Overall, Pakistan contributed $1.7bn on charity to the deserving in the year 2009. These donations have helped the organizations such as Khana Ghar to feed hungry people, Edhi Foundation to facilitate rescues and orphanages, and Roshni Homes to provide housing facilities for orphans. On account of culture, Pakistan is a challenging and unique country context to study charity donation inten- tions. People in Pakistan, unlike their Western coun- terparts, are scoring high on collectivism and power distance (Hofstede, 2003). This establishes the no- tion that charity donation intentions are differently formed among the members of the Pakistani society. There are other forms of charity as well other

than zakat to help poor and needy people. A completely volunteering activity called sadaqah depends solely on the discretion of the donor (Dean

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& Khan, 1997) and is not obligatory. The sadaqah can be a service to save someone from a sin, dona- tion of clothes, or providing food to the needy per- son(s). Another form of charity in Islam is called kaffara, which is offered in situations where an oath has been broken. Finally, Muslims also donate to hospitals, charities, mosques, and other institu- tions to support people in need, which is known as waqf (Opoku, 2012). The current study focuses on the younger adults

because their motivation and intention to donate money has remained an under-researched area of investigation (Yuan et al., 2011). Another, a large chunk of Pakistan’s population comprises of youn- ger people where the median age is 22years. The younger adults are substantial spenders while funding various charitable causes (Bashford, 2002) and also donate on a regular basis (Safi & Ramay, 2013). It is also believed that younger adults become long-life customers once they are satisfied with the quality of products and services consumed at an early stage of their life (Hart et al., 2007).

Theory of planned behavior

The psychosocial theories are proved extremely beneficial to marketing researchers in understand- ing consumer behavior. Among these theories, the TPB model is widely acknowledged and employed to understand intentions and behavior (Figure 1). The TPB model is presented by Ajzen (1985) who advocated the idea that attitude (target behavior and its evaluation), norms (perceived social pres- sures to perform a certain behavior), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) influence behavioral inten- tions, which in turn leads to a particular behavior. At a later stage, to enhance the predictive power of TPB, Ajzen (1991) proposed an extended model by incorporating the effect of moral norms, descriptive norms, and past behavior to predict behavioral in- tentions, which ultimately leads to actual behavior. This clearly indicates that behavior and intentions are a function of a combination of factors: personal,

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

Behavioural Intention

Behaviour

Perceived Behavioural

Attitude

Injunctive Norm

Descriptive norm

Moral norm

Past behaviour

Figure 1. Research model.

87Predicting money donations among Muslims

social, and psychological. The marketers of philan- thropic services have employed the TPB model extensively; however, the investigation based on the extended model is scarce (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith & McSweeney, 2007). The major strengths of the TPB model lie in iden-

tifying the core determinants of behavior and in theorizing the behavioral, control, and normative beliefs. This belief-based model classifies individuals into two categories: individuals who intend to per- form certain behavior and those who do not have any intentions. Empirical studies have supported these assumptions of the TPB such as in predicting blood donation behavior (Warburton & Terry, 2000), charitable bequest (Konkoly & Perloff, 1990), and in predicting charitable giving behaviors (Okun & Sloane, 2002; Greenslade & White, 2005). Furthermore, it is found that subjective norms, atti- tude, and PBC bring a 40–50% variance in intentions and that PBC and intentions cause another 30% variance in behavior (Armitage & Conner, 2001). There are only two studies found so far where the

researchers have used the TPB to examine money donation intentions and behavior (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith & McSweeney, 2007). It is important to note here that these researchers employed an ex- tended version of the TPB, which has never been employed to investigate money donation intentions

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in an Asian setting. The study of Knowles et al. (2012) employs regression analysis to predict inten- tions and actual behaviors toward money donation where elements of an extended TPB explain a 61% variance in intentions to donate money. These studies recognized the fact that attitude, subjective norms, and PBC strongly predict intentions to be- have that also explain actual behavior via the TPB model. Keeping in view the limited literature in the ETPBmodel, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H1: Attitude positively relates to money dona- tion intentions

H2: Perceived behavioral control positively re- lates to money donation intentions

The extended version of TPB has evolved over a period of time. Initially, subjective norms and atti- tude were found to predict donation intentions and behaviors (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). After a few years of the initially proposed model, re- searchers extended the variables by adding a few elements pertaining to norms and past behavior, which further strengthened the predictive power of the theory (Konkoly & Perloff, 1990). Both of the two newly established categories of norms are different from each other in a sense that descriptive

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

88 Muhammad Kashif and Ernest Cyril De Run

norms are considerate of the role of reference group members on donation intentions while moral norms are more personal in nature and acknowledge an individual’s perception of personal responsibility to donate (Manstead, 2000). Moral norms have been added to the model in order to better predict altruistic behaviors, money and blood donation (Warburton & Terry, 2000; Armitage & Conner, 2001). The injunctive and descriptive norms have been used to predict tobacco usage behavior (McMillan & Conner, 2003a), drug usage behavior (Conner & McMillan, 1999), and in gambling re- search (Sheeran & Orbell, 1999), which is not ethical and must not be promoted to societies. These two distinct types of norms separately cause an intention to behave, which ultimately determines actual behavior (Rivis & Sheeran, 2003). These studies contributed in enhancing the explanatory power of the model in terms of predicting inten- tions and behaviors. The importance of moral norms while predicting

donation behaviors of individuals is acknowledged (Oosterhof, Heuvelman, & Peters, 2009; and Radley & Kennedy, 1995); however, only a few studies consider a collective effect of injunctive, moral, and descriptive norms to explain intentions and behaviors. These three types of norms have been studied in isolation to predict various behaviors related to tobacco, drug, and alcohol use with very little research conducted to understand the altruistic behaviors (Warburton & Terry, 2000). Employing these three norms in predicting altruistic behaviors will contribute extensively to the theory develop- ment in the attitude–behavior construct and will result into the development of some behavioral change strategies (Smith & McSweeney, 2007). The current study proposes the following hypotheses:

H3: Descriptive norms positively relate to money donation intentions

H4: Injunctive norms positively relate to money donation intentions

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H5: Moral norms positively relates to money donation intentions

In addition to the traditional TPB model, re- searchers have highlighted the role and impact of past behavior in predicting intentions to donate money (Sutton, 1994). The element of past behavior has been acknowledged as a strong predictor of be- havioral intentions (Bozionelos & Bennett, 1999). These researchers believed that past behavior is a much stronger predictor of intentions as compared with attitudes as it predicts socially acceptable behaviors (Lee, Piliavin, & Call, 1999). Individual behavior, mostly shaped by past experiences per- taining to a specific phenomenon, which is not in- vestigated in detail (Cheung & Chan, 2000), hence must be focused. This leads to proposing the final hypothesis:

H6: Past behavior positively relates to money donation intentions

Methodology

The study

The study aims to relate money donation intentions by employing the ETPB model in an Asian setting of Pakistan. Because strong theoretical support was evident, a positivist stance was preferred over a realist and interpretive approach. Positivists advo- cate an objective worldview and employ quantita- tive approaches to analyze the data (Bryman, 2012). The positivist stance is preferred in such cases as highlighted in this study and also is widely employed by philanthropy marketers to investigate social behaviors (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith & McSweeney, 2007; Opoku, 2012). The research team approached 250 inhabitants in

the city of Gujranwala, located in the largest province of Punjab, Pakistan, where the colleges and universities, regional offices of national and mul- tinational companies, and offices of many small- sized and medium-sized enterprises are located.

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

89Predicting money donations among Muslims

The food businesses and traditional wrestling as an art collectively contribute further to the city’s vibrancy that appeals to people of all ages. There are many young people from surrounding small towns who travel to the city for the purpose of work, study, and their personal businesses. In order to collect data, a few shopping malls located in the city of Gujranwala were chosen as per convenience. The respondents qualified based on asking an

initial question: have you donated money in the last one month? The core objective behind this qualification of respondents was to gain insights from those who have actually donated. Once the initial qualification of respondents was completed, the research team sought approvals from individual respondents to participate in the study on a volun- tary basis. There were 250 questionnaires dis- tributed among the potential respondents, and 223 were collected back and found fit for data analysis. The remainder of 27 respondents denied our re- quest to participate in the survey. The response rate (89.2%) and the sample size fit well with the previ- ous studies conducted to understand money dona- tion intentions in the non-Eastern and Western context (Opoku, 2012; Knowles et al., 2012).

Measures

The survey-based questionnaire was based on studies conducted by Knowles et al. (2012) and Smith and McSweeney (2007). Because the variables have been tested time and again, it was employed without making any changes in the question struc- ture and content. One of the well differentiated products of this study is the sample respondents who are not only students but also regular donors. In recently conducted TPB studies, however, the students have been sampled as respondents (Smith & McSweeney, 2007; Opoku, 2012). The question- naire comprised of two major parts: the revised TPB items and demographics. The scale comprised of 39 items clustered into seven dimensions, which include attitude, PBC, injunctive norms, descriptive

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norms, moral norms, past behavior, and self- reported behavior. A five-point Likert scale was used to measure all the constructs with 1= strongly dis- agree and 5= strongly agree. Attitude was measured by employing five-point

semantic differential items of attitude toward money donation. For instance, the money donation experi- ence to a charitable organization was considered through a range of responses such as “unpleasant— pleasant” and “useless—useful”. The PBC dimension was comprised of five items. For example, “Overall, how much control do you have over whether you will donate money to charities or community ser- vice organisations in the next 4weeks?” Injunctive norms were measured using six items, contributing toward intentions to donate money. For instance, “The people closest to me would disapprove if I donated money to charities or community service organisations.” Descriptive norms were measured through four items such as “Most people who are important to me donate money to charities or com- munity service organisations.” Moral norms were measured by six items. For example, “I am the kind of person who donates money to charities or community service organisations.” The dimension past behavior was measured through a five-item scale. For example, “I do not donate money to char- ities or community service organizations.” Five items were used to measure behavioral intention to donate money to charitable organizations. For in- stance, “I would like to donate money to charities or community service organisations in the next 4weeks.” Self-reported behavior was measured by asking the question “How often during the past 4weeks have you made monetary donations to charities or community service organisations?” The impact of non-response bias in results was

estimated. Chi-square difference test was con- ducted by employing the approximate percentage of each revised TPB item. A non-response analysis was performed in accordance with the guidelines provided by marketing researchers (Aydin, Özer, & Arasil, 2005). The unidimensionality of scale items was then assessed through exploratory

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

Table 2. Reliability for variables

Variable Alpha

90 Muhammad Kashif and Ernest Cyril De Run

factor analysis (Churchill, 1979), and once found appropriate, data would then be analyzed using multiple regression.

Self-reported behavior 0.831 Behavioral intention 0.793 Past behavior 0.918 Attitude 0.735 Moral norms 0.787 Descriptive norms 0.812 Injunctive norms 0.739 Perceived behavioral control 0.797

Findings

The average age of respondents was 24years where the largest segment of sample comprised of people in the age group of 19–27years. Among the respon- dents, 46.6% were aged between 18 and 21years and 53.4% were in the age range of 22–27years. There were 55% male respondents while the rest were female. Table 1 presents the number of times respondents donated in the past 4weeks alongside the respective percentage for each group, which is self-explanatory. The results of the chi-square tests for non-

response analysis were x23=0.1701 and p<0.02, which indicate the difference between distributions as insignificant. Before moving further in the analy- sis, the researchers assessed the unidimensionality of scale items through exploratory factor analysis (Churchill, 1979). Based on the scores of a 39-item scale, no item in the scale was deleted. The relia- bility of each scale used is shared in Table 2. Descriptive analysis was also performed, and

results are presented in Table 3. To further enrich the analysis, demographical dif-

ferences toward money donation intentions among age and gender classifications were explored. An independent-sample t-test was performed, and it is found that male and female respondents do not vary significantly toward money donation intentions by

Table 1. Times respondents donated in the past 4weeks

Number of times donated N Percentage

One to two times 9 4.0 Three to four times 58 26.0 Five to six times 100 45.0 More than six times 56 25 Total 223 100.0

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injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and past be- havior. The respondents considered these elements as strong predictors of money donation intentions and behaviors. However, male and female respon- dents vary in their opinions regarding attitude, PBC, moral norms, and behavioral intentions to donate money. On the other side, between the age groups, “attitude toward money donation” is found significant with a “T” value of 2.56. For the rest of the variables, differences are not found as signifi- cant. The results are presented through Table 4. For the purpose of hypothesis testing, a multiple

regression analysis was performed where the entry of revised TPB dimensions into a stepwise regression model was carried out (Smith & McSweeney, 2007). As presented in Table 5, the linear combination

of attitude, injunctive norms, and perceived PBC accounted for the 51% change in donation inten- tions toward money F(3, 277)=28.87. The inclusion of descriptive norms and moral norms contributed a further 7% increase in variance, F(6, 273)=31.8. Finally, the inclusion of past behavior further strengthened the explanatory power of the predic- tive model and caused a variance of 63% collectively, F(7, 266)=19.7. All the dimensions of revised TPB model accounted for the 63% variance in money do- nation intentions and behavior. The significance level of 0.05 was envisioned, as a rule of thumb. Un- der such a standard, the social science researchers accept the hypothesis testing results to be accept- able and valid. As per the results, the significance levels for all the stepwise regression results are

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

Table 4. Demographic differences in money donation intentions

Dimensions

Gender Age

Male Female T Below 21 22–27 T

Attitude 2.53 2.37 2.37 2.57 2.39 2.56 Perceived behavioral control 3.49 3.30 2.72 3.35 3.42 �0.97 Injunctive norms 3.09 2.97 1.76 3.07 3.00 0.99 Descriptive norms 3.27 3.21 0.81 3.20 3.29 �1.17 Moral norms 3.14 2.98 2.39 3.04 3.10 �0.73 Past behavior 3.24 3.20 0.64 3.25 3.16 1.91 Behavioral intentions 3.10 2.85 3.52 3.05 2.96 1.10

Table 5. Multiple stepwise regression

Step Predictor R2adjusted Fchange Degrees of freedom β Significance

1 Attitude 0.51 28.87*** 3, 277 0.24 0.000 Injunctive norms 0.26 Perceived behavioral control 0.21

2 Attitude 0.58 31.8*** 6, 273 0.43 0.004 Injunctive norms 0.22 Behavioral control 0.07 Descriptive norms 0.04 Moral norms 0.22

3 Attitude 0.63 19.7.*** 7, 266 0.26 0.002 Injunctive norms 0.27 Behavioral control 0.31 Descriptive norms 0.22 Moral norms 0.34 Past behavior 0.29

***P < .001.

Table 3. Correlation and means

Dimensions Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Attitude 4.21 0.576 — Perceived behavioral control 4.04 0.715 0.91 — Injunctive norms 4.20 0.472 0.80b 0.41a — Descriptive norms 4.02 0.716 0.71 0.40a 0.42a — Moral norms 3.71 0.813 0.62a 0.38a 0.81a 0.75a — Past behavior 4.37 0.359 0.68a 0.48a 0.61b 0.53a 0.89a — Behavioral intentions 4.34 0.480 0.78b 0.92 0.78a 0.66 0.39a 0.28a —

aCorrelation is significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed). bCorrelation is significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed).

91Predicting money donations among Muslims

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92 Muhammad Kashif and Ernest Cyril De Run

0.000, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively, which is within the established standard to confirm hypothe- sis testing in TPB studies (Knowles et al., 2012). The significance level postulates an acceptable standard where the decision about hypothesis testing is ren- dered by researchers. The results reveal acceptance of all the hypothetical relationships proposed in this study, given the significance levels achieved. The results also indicate a strong relationship between TPB dimensions of attitude, subjective norms, past behavior, and PBC on the behavioral intentions among donors in Pakistan. All the independent variables bring about a 63% change in behavioral intentions among Muslim donors in Pakistan.

Discussion

The studies that inculcate a collective role of all the dimensions of the ETPB model to investigate money donation intentions in a developing Asian country context are scarce (Frimpong & Wilson, 2013). In particular, the model has never been employed to investigate behaviors of Muslim donors. This is where current study contributes by investigating money donation intentions through employing the ETPB model in a developing Islamic country. The di- mensions of the ETPB model studied here strongly relate to each other and are useful to philanthropists to better able to understand Muslim donor behavior. This is in line with the previous studies conducted to investigate money donation intentions in the West (Smith & McSweeney, 2007). The findings provide support for H1, H2, and H3. Overall, the results provide strong support to the ETPB model as it accounted for a 63% variance in intentions to donate money. These results provide strong support to the studies conducted by early researchers in the field of consumer behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). The findings of this study have added a deve-

loping country context to the ETPB model. The traditional as well as contemporary elements of the TPB significantly relate to money donation

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intentions. However, the results provide a strong ev- idence to the ETPB model and its dimensions that is a good contribution. Being a Muslim society, charity at microlevels as well as at macrolevels is promoted and people refer each other to help the poor and needy. The findings reveal higher levels of PBC that is understandable. Being a culturally collectivist soci- ety where people like to be part of a group and know each other very well, a high score on descriptive norms is justified. Given the frequency of social is- sues and natural disasters over the years, respon- dents’ agreeableness with moral norms is understandable. A large number of charitable organi- zations requested people to donate money since last few years that may have contributed to high mean scores for past behavior dimension. The results of this study are different as compared

with previously conducted studies in a Western con- text where descriptive and moral norms do not strongly relate to behavioral intentions (Knowles et al., 2012). The new finding can be attributed to culture as for instance, Hofstede (2003) pointed that Pakistanis score high on collectivism, which means they are likely to become part of a group, and this is why the impact of reference group members has been found significant in this study. Furthermore, descriptive norms are an individual’s perceptions of the role and impact of reference group members; hence, the respondents seem to be strongly influ- enced by descriptive norms in an Asian setting of Pakistan. The results of current study strongly support the notion that descriptive norms strongly relate to money donation intentions. The signi- ficance of descriptive norms has already been acknowledged in previous studies (Konkoly & Perloff, 1990), which entails that charitable organi- zations in Pakistan should promote their brands by focusing on group-centered promotions. The results reveal a high frequency of charitable

donations among Pakistani youth, which can be attributed to religious reasons. For example, while answering the question how frequently have you donated in the last four weeks? 45% highlighted they donated five to six times. This is due to the fact

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

93Predicting money donations among Muslims

that Pakistan as a country has frequently faced several social issues of distress and a few natural disasters such as the earthquake in the year 2005, flooding in 2010, spread of dengue fever, and the US–Afghan war that affected immigrants who re- quired food and shelter. The Government of Pakistan declared an emergency situation several times and asked people to donate generously to help the poor and needy. These disasters were rescued with charities donated by the general public, which involve people from all sects of life, especially the uni- versity students. A huge amount of sadaqah, zakat, and waqf were collected and distributed to the poor and needy. People donated to several well-known charitable organizations such as Edhi in Pakistan and also generously helped affected people on an individ- ual basis. However, the amount donated has been un- known. The Muslim donors usually do not share the amount of money donated to help the poor and needy as donation is made to gain Allah’s blessings and is widely practiced among Muslims. The results also reveal a positive attitude of

younger people toward moral norms in relation to investigating money donation intentions. This is also in line with previous studies conducted in the West (Warburton & Terry, 2000; Oosterhof et al., 2009). A few demographic differences were also explored in this study where it is found that men and women vary significantly in their opinions concerning atti- tude, PBC, moral norms, and behavioral intentions to donate money. The different attitudinal response toward money donation intention between male and female respondents is also found to exist in studies conducted in the West (Greenslade & White, 2005). Furthermore, the age of respondents was distributed into two main groups: people below 21years old and people between 21 and 27years old. However, a few differences were found and it can be concluded that majority of people in these age brackets donate money in Pakistan. The findings of this study offer several implica-

tions for charitable and nonprofit organizations. First, the results suggest that an increase in positive attitude encourages donors to donate money. To

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establish positive attitude, organizations need to create wonderful customer service experiences while minimizing fatigue and anxiety during service encounters (Hart et al., 2007). This can be per- formed by hiring service-oriented frontline staff, usage of technology to target those areas that are geographically distant by offering them conve- nience, and the development of an online donation facility to save consumers’ time and cost. Second, subjective norms are found to significantly relate to donation intentions. In a collectivist Muslim popula- tion, organizations can benefit from the role being played by reference group members in an effort to raise funds (Konkoly & Perloff, 1990). In addition to that, religious campaigns, emphasizing to help the poor and needy, can be launched to generate funds. In this regard, an awareness of religious char- itable products, commonly used among Muslims, must be focused such as zakat, waqf, kaffarah, and sadakah. It is observed that charitable organiza- tions create brand awareness through traditional channels; however, product awareness is also im- portant and must be developed to raise the amount of funds donated by the public. Third, the charity or- ganizations need to maintain customer databases where they can predict future intentions based on past behaviors (Bozionelos & Bennett, 1999). Char- ity and nonprofit organizations need to understand the predictors of donation intentions in order to formulate effective marketing strategies (Lemmens et al., 2005). Understanding and serving the needs of beneficiaries will enhance the public trust and satisfaction with these organizations (Modi, 2012). The results of this study are expected to serve this purpose, and it is clear that the traditional as well as contemporary dimensions of the TPB must be considered while trying to attract donors.

Limitations and future research directions

In spite of several strengths of current study such as employment of a sound theoretical model, the new

Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., February 2015 DOI: 10.1002/nvsm

94 Muhammad Kashif and Ernest Cyril De Run

Asian setting and country context of Pakistan, selec- tion of a non-student population, and an application of robust statistical techniques, the findings must be understood in the light of a few limitations. First, the data are collected only from younger adults residing in the city of Gujranwala, hence limiting the general- izability of the findings to other age groups as well as to other geographical areas of Pakistan. Future re- searchers are strongly recommended to study the population residing in other cities of Pakistan. Given the differences of culture and language, a different set of results is expected. Second, the study did not identify motives be-

hind various forms of charity donation such as zakat, waqf, and sadaqah. In a Muslim setting, some other elements also cause intentions to do- nate such as motivations for waqf endowment may be different when compared with those for sadaqah and zakat. The element of religiosity so far has not been discussed in the ETPB model and can be a very strong potential area of investi- gation for TPB researchers. Third, the data collected are cross-sectional

where researchers acknowledge the sporadic nature of charitable giving that can be associated with certain eves and festivals in Muslim settings such as the holy month of fasting where charity donation intentions increase significantly to gain the blessings of Allah. Future researchers investigating Muslim donors must acknowledge these occasions. Hence, a longitudinal research strategy is strongly recom- mended to understand the impact of these special occasions on charity donation intentions. Finally, current study did not investigate the amount of money asked from respondents. Future studies are recommended to ask the amount of money donated as linking it with the purpose of donation will provide excellent results.

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