Marketing Intelligence & Planning Charity donation: intentions and behaviour Muhammad Kashif Syamsulang Sarifuddin Azizah Hassan

Marketing Intelligence & Planning Charity donation: intentions and behaviour Muhammad Kashif Syamsulang Sarifuddin Azizah Hassan

Marketing Intelligence & Planning Charity donation: intentions and behaviour Muhammad Kashif Syamsulang Sarifuddin Azizah Hassan

Article information: To cite this document: Muhammad Kashif Syamsulang Sarifuddin Azizah Hassan , (2015),”Charity donation: intentions and behaviour”, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 33 Iss 1 pp. 90 – 102 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MIP-07-2013-0110

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Users who downloaded this article also downloaded: Riza Casidy, Min Teah, Michael Lwin, Isaac Cheah, (2014),”Moderating role of religious beliefs on attitudes towards charities and motivation to donate”, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 26 Iss 5 pp. 738-760 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/APJML-09-2014-0141 Saeid Saeida Ardakani, Majid Nejatian, Mohammad Ali Farhangnejad, Mehran Nejati, (2015),”A fuzzy approach to service quality diagnosis”, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 33 Iss 1 pp. 103-119 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/MIP-02-2013-0035 Muhammad Kashif, Mohsin Abdul Rehman, (2014),”Expected service quality of utility stores in Pakistan: Qualitative investigation of older and younger generational cohorts”, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Vol. 6 Iss 4 pp. 309-325 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJQSS-04-2013-0023

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*Related content and download information correct at time of download.

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Charity donation: intentions and behaviour Muhammad Kashif

Marketing Department, GIFT University, Gujranwala, Pakistan Syamsulang Sarifuddin

Faculty of Economics & Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, and

Azizah Hassan Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to investigate money donation intentions and behaviour. Furthermore, the applicability of an extended TPB model is tested for the first time in a collectivist culture. Design/methodology/approach – The data have been collected from 221 people living in the city of Kuala Lampur through a questionnaire based on extended TPB model. The data have been analysed through employing structural equation modelling (SEM) procedures to extract meaningful conclusions. Findings – The results depict an excellent fit to the extended TPB model. The past behaviour, injunctive norms, and intentions to donate positively contribute towards actual behaviour to donate money. Attitude, self-reported behaviour, descriptive norms, and moral norms do not significantly contribute to intentions to donate money. Practical implications – Managers of charitable organisations are struggling to attract customers who can actively donate money in response to various fundraising campaigns. This study will provide some useful strategies to help managers in attracting and retaining customers for life. Originality/value – Research studies performed to investigate money donation intentions and behaviour are scarce where current research fills this knowledge gap by presenting a developing country perspective. In addition to that, extended TPB model to investigate money donation intentions and behaviour has never been refuted through SEM procedures. Keywords Marketing, Theory of planned behaviour, Charity, Money donation Paper type Research paper

Introduction Charity has been attributed to giving that includes not only the blood donations but a wide range of products to help the underprivileged. Charity is comprised of four major activities; the development of welfare trust to reduce poverty, increasing and promoting education, promotion of religion, and promotion of such initiatives that are beneficial to society (Shaikh and McLarney, 2005). The public donations are helpful to support the needy people in an era where government funding has been limited. In order to generate public funding, organisations need to understand the intentions and behaviour of donors (Eng Ling, 2012). However, the efforts to study the donor behaviour and specifically intentions to donate money have not been studied extensively (Knowles et al., 2012). Understanding the motivation and intentions to donate money is important to develop effective marketing strategies which can generate charity from individuals to fund emergencies and disasters. These charitable and philanthropic efforts have been acknowledged in western as well as US settings (Wright, 2001). It has been observed that even poor people make a lot of charity to help the poor and needy (Avdeyeva et al., 2006). In this regard, religion and belief systems play a pivotal role in charitable giving.

Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol. 33 No. 1, 2015 pp. 90-102 ©EmeraldGroup Publishing Limited 0263-4503 DOI 10.1108/MIP-07-2013-0110

Received 14 May 2013 Revised 10 July 2013 26 October 2013 17 December 2013 Accepted 7 January 2014

The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: www.emeraldinsight.com/0263-4503.htm

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For example, religiosity affects the amount of charity among Christians (Jewell and Wutich, 2011). Charity has also been an integral part of religion amongMuslims. In one of the Qura’anic verses Allah SWT said:

For those who give to men and women in charity and loan to Allah a Beautiful Loan, it shall be increased (to their credit) and they shall have (besides) a liberal reward (Chapter 57, Verse 18).

Charity organisations are struggling hard to raise funds to help the underprivileged. Over the years, the public donations are inconsistent with an overall declining trend towards charity donations (Eng Ling, 2012). On the other side, need to raise funds is rising rapidly and if this problem will not be tackled, it can cause trouble for the poor and needy (Sargeant et al., 2002). TheMuslims, Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, and people from all other religious beliefs donate generously for various causes (Ranganathan and Henley, 2008). Religion helps in developing a path to helping others. Charity donation intentions have so far presented the developed country perspectives with a serious need to investigate this phenomenon in developing countries (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith and McSweeney, 2007). Some studies has been conducted in a developing country context but so far identified the role of demographics to explain the predictors of charity donations (Lord, 1981; Burgoyne et al., 2005; Lee and Chang, 2007). These studies highlighted the gender and age differences to explain charity intentions but could not figure out as why people donate money (Smith and McSweeney, 2007). These studies also lack the theoretical rigour to comprehensively define money donation intentions and behaviour. Studies in the western world have focused on employing the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to explain the charity donation intentions (Knowles et al., 2012). However, the evidence of employing an extended TPB and its application from a developing country context is badly missing. Researchers call for some contextual studies to be conducted in the domain of services marketing which represent the developing country perspectives (Frimpong and Wilson, 2013).

Marketing in non-profit sector is a complex phenomenon. This has been mainly due to the fact that charitable organisations have some distinctive characteristics which pose challenges to the survival and growth of these organisations. Charitable organisations have an internal focus and are “organisation-centred” instead of being “customer driven” which hinders the growth of these organisations (Andreasen and Kotler, 2003). However, this has been classified as a traditional view because the realities of modern era such as; tough competition, demanding customers, and lack of public trust pose real threats to the survival and growth of charitable organisations (Padanyi and Gainer, 2004). Given the challenges faced by these organisations, an understanding of reasons to donate money is pertinent to develop a highly successful marketing strategy which can trigger charitable giving (Piferi et al., 2006). Charitable organisations face tough competition from each other but their orientation is still internally focused (Dolnicar et al., 2008). Charitable organisations also lack the workforce which comprises of marketing professionals who can devise some strategies to grow and sustain the competitive advantage (Dolnicar and Lazarevski, 2009). This necessitates the need to understand the customer perspective which can help charity organisations in meeting the current marketing challenges. TBP has been extensively used to predict human behaviour that will be employed in this research study (Ajzen, 1985). By acknowledging these knowledge gaps, the study has been planned to answer the following research questions:

RQ1. What are the factors contributing to public donation in Malaysia?

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RQ2. Which elements of extended TPB model predict donation intentions?

RQ3. What is the significant “fit” of extended TPB model in a collectivist society context?

Cultural differences and TBP Culture affects the individual attitude and behaviours. The intentions to donate have been studied extensively under various cultural contexts (Chan and Lau, 2001; Park and Lee, 2009). It is believed that an individual’s emotions, cognition, and behaviours are formed by the local culture (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). This also entails that the behaviour towards donation intentions will vary from culture to culture. People living in “Individualistic” cultures present their own unique attributes and perceive them as different from others. However, “Collectivists” like to be part of a group and attribute their intentions as a function of a “group think” (Triandis, 1995). This implies that the elements of TPB have a different impact on intentions to donate in both the individual as well as collectivist cultures. In individualistic cultures, attitude is found to strongly predict donation intentions while norms are a strong predictor of donation intentions in collectivist cultures (Chan and Lau, 2001; Lee and Green, 1991). The results, however, are mixed across cultures. This may be due to the fact that self-reference strongly influences the interpretations of norms and attitude. This in turn, influences the perceived role of various elements on donation intentions across cultures (Pepitone and Triandis, 1987). Further to this, individuals living in one culture may perceive a certain type of behaviour as much easier to perform while people in the other culture may think it too difficult to perform the same behaviour (Park et al., 2010). The results of their study also showed that people in collectivist cultures are strongly influenced by members of a reference group. The evidence supports the notion that individuals living in collectivist societies behave differently than their western counterparts. The TBP has been extensively used to predict charity donation intentions and behaviour in investigating the healthy eating determinants (Astrom and Rise, 2001); and the usage of tobacco and other alcoholic products (McMillan and Conner, 2003a). Money donation intentions and behaviours have also been predicted but in a western setting which is different as compared with cultures prevailing in Asia (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith and McSweeney, 2007). These knowledge gaps necessitate the need to conduct a study which presents the money donation intention and behaviour in the Asian context of Malaysia. The researchers call for subsequent efforts to present a developing country context where this research is planned to contribute (Frimpong and Wilson, 2013). Given the reduced support of the Malaysian Government in funding the charitable organisations, and other marketing challenges facing charitable organisations discussed earlier, this study has significance to industry and academia.

TBP Individual behaviour is a logical process where elements such as attitude, norms, and behavioural control influence individual decision making. The TPB favours the influence of these elements causing a specific set of behaviours through delineating intentions to behave in a certain way. The researchers investigating TPB have found that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control cause 40-50 per cent of variance in intentions to behave (Armitage and Conner, 2001). The TPB model has been widely used by Behavioural science researchers due to its predictive ability. TPB not only explains and directs intentions to behave but also clarifies the underlying

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reasons and beliefs about a certain action. The model has been tested in several contexts to predict donation behaviour (Konkoly and Perloff, 1990). Money donation behaviour has been predicted through employing TBP (Okun and Sloane, 2002). However, two notable contributions are found where extended TPB has been employed to study money donation intentions and behaviour (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith and McSweeney, 2007). Smith and McSweeney (2007) used regression to predict money donation intentions and behaviour. However, instead of using the classic TPB model, the researchers framed their study in accordance with the extended version of TPB. The results of their study depicted a significant contribution of norms, attitudes, and behavioural control elements on money donation behaviour. The study of Knowles et al. (2012) also employed an extended version of TPB to predict donation intentions. It was found that extended TPB explicated 61 per cent of variance and attitude, norms, and past behaviour predicted the intentions to donate. These studies support the notion that attitude, past behaviours, and norms are strong predictors of donations intentions. Therefore the following hypothesis can be established:

H1. Perceived behavioural control positively predicts money donation intentions.

H2. Attitude positively predicts money donation intentions.

The variables used in the extended version of TPB have been evolved over the years. Subjective norms and attitude has been acknowledged as strong predictors of donation behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). However, injunctive norms and descriptive norms were added to the model at a later stage (Konkoly and Perloff, 1990). Injunctive norms signify an individual’s perception of social pressures from the reference group members to perform certain behaviour (Warburton and Terry, 2000). On the other side, descriptive norms reflect an individual’s perception whether others in the reference group perform the behaviour (McMillan and Conner, 2003a). These two norms are differently used to predict intentions and actual behaviour to donate money (Rivis and Sheeran, 2003). These studies provide sound evidence regarding the predictive ability of extended TPB in money donation intention studies. In addition to these two norms, moral norms have also been added to the traditional model that predict altruistic behaviour in studies pertaining to blood and money donation (Warburton and Terry, 2000; Armitage and Conner, 2001). Descriptive norms acknowledge the influence of reference group members on charity donation while moral norms advocate a personal responsibility to help the needy people (Manstead, 2000). It is notable here that a few studies have been reported which takes into account a collective effect of moral norms, subjective norms, and descriptive norms to explain the behaviour of donors. Therefore, the following hypotheses are established:

H3. Descriptive norms positively predict money donation intentions.

H4. Injunctive norms positively predict money donation intentions.

H5. Moral norms positively predict money donation intentions.

The elements of a revised TBP have been employed in isolation to predict the donation intentions of donors (Warburton and Terry, 2000). The researchers have strongly recommended the idea to collectively employ all the elements of a revised TPB model to

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assess their impact on money donation intentions (Smith and McSweeney, 2007; Knowles et al., 2012). In addition to norms, researchers have highlighted the role of “past behaviour” in an effort to predict donor intentions and behaviours (Sutton, 2010). In some studies, past behaviour has been found to predict donation intentions strongly as compared with attitude (Bozionelos and Bennett, 1999). Self-reported behaviour has also been reported to predict donation intentions but the evidence is available from a developed country context (Smith and McSweeney, 2007). This evidence necessitates the need to include past behaviours and self-reported behaviour to predict donation intentions. This may enhance the predictive ability of TPB in cases where a few studies have been conducted. Therefore, the following hypotheses have been established:

H6. Past behaviour positively predicts money donation intentions.

H7. Self-reported behaviour positively predicts money donation intentions.

Methodology Sampling and data collection The extended TBP model has been used to investigate the money donation intentions and behaviour of donors living in a collectivist culture of Malaysia. According to Hofstede (2003) study, Malaysia is a collectivist society with low scores on “Individualism”. The country context was chosen on the basis of its cultural differences as compared with western individualistic societies. This could help the research team to present a new and culturally distinct perspective. Following the positivist tradition, a survey approach to research has been adopted which is extensively used to investigate the charity donation and intention behaviour s (Smith and McSweeney, 2007). There were 250 people approached in the city of Kuala Lampur by the research team. The respondents were qualified through a screening question (i.e. donors who have donated money in the last one month). This sampling criterion was used to gain insights from relational givers instead of occasional givers therefore to avoid any possible attrition. Once the participants passed the initial screening question and agreed to participate, they were requested to fill in the questionnaire. Out of 250 questionnaires distributed, 221 were returned back and were usable. This entails a response rate of 88 per cent which is considered appropriate to perform a structural equation modelling (SEM) procedure (Ahmad and Butt, 2012). The sample size has also been considered apt as previous researchers have also used even small number of respondents to investigate money donation intentions and behaviour (Knowles et al., 2012). The strength of survey lies in the fact that a non-student population has been sampled to investigate money donation intention and behaviour. Previous studies have used students as sample respondents who do not truly represent the whole population (Opoku, 2012).

The study The survey instrument was opted from the work of Knowles et al. (2012) and Smith and McSweeney (2007). Table I presents the number of times people donated in the past four weeks. This measure was employed to understand the frequency of donation among the Malaysians. It has been observed that 47 per cent of respondents donated three to four times in the last four weeks while 51 per cent donated five to six times in the last four weeks. This shows that the sample consisted of individuals who

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generously donate money to charities and other social organisations. The gender of the respondents comprised of females (90 per cent) and males (10 per cent).

Measures The instrument employed in this study has been comprised of two parts; extended TPB model variables and the demographics. There were 31 items that spread across seven dimensions. These dimensions include: attitude, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, moral norms, past behaviour, and self-reported behaviour. To measure all the constructs, a differential five-point Likert scale was used.

Attitude A five-point Likert scale comprised of semantically different items of attitude towards money donation was used. The money donation intentions were measured through a range of responses which stem from “unpleasant¼ 1” to “pleasant¼ 5”, “Useless¼ 1 to Useless¼ 5”.

Perceived behavioural control The PBC measure comprised of five items. For example, “Overall, how much control do you have over whether you will donate money to charities or community service organisations in the next 4 weeks?” The scale ranged from “weak Behavioural control over donating money¼ 1 to strong behavioural control¼ 5”.

Injunctive norms The IN scaled 6 items to measure intentions to donate money. The items such as; “The people closest to me would disapprove if I donated money to charities or community service organisations in the next 4 weeks” were used. The Likert scale ranged from “strongly disapprove¼ 1” to “strongly approve¼ 5”.

Descriptive norms The DN construct was measured through four items on a scale which ranged “strongly disagree¼ 1” to “strongly agree¼ 5”. For instance, questions such as; “Most people who are important to me donate money to charities or community service organisations” were asked.

Moral norms This construct was measured through six items that ranged from “strongly disagree¼ 1” to “strongly disagree¼ 5”. The items were included such as; “I am the kind of person who donates money to charities or community service organisations”.

Number of times Frequency %

1 to 2 times 2 0.9 3 to 4 times 105 47.5 5 to 6 times 114 51.6 Total 221 100.0

Table I. Number of times people donated money in past

four weeks

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Past behaviour The construct of Past behaviour scaled 5 items ranging from “Not at all true¼ 1” to “Absolutely true¼ 5”. The items comprised such as; “Over the past 4 weeks, I did not donate money to charities or community service organisations”.

Behavioural intention The BI scale was measured through 5 items such as; “I would like to donate money to charities or community service organisations in the next 4 weeks”. The scale employed was ranging from “not at all¼ 1 to very much¼ 5”.

Self-reported behaviour The self-reported behaviour was measured by scaling two items. First item “How often during the past 4 weeks have you made monetary donations to charities or community service organisations?” was measured on a scale that ranged from “not at all¼ 1” to “frequently¼ 5”. The second item “How many times during the past 4 weeks have you donated money to charities or community service organisations?” was differently measured to analyse the various frequency levels.

Results Measurement model The collected data were analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 and AMOS version 7.0. Following the procedure suggested by Anderson and Gerbing (1988), a measurement model was estimated before the structural model. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the measurement model and to test data quality, including reliability and construct validity checks. SEM was performed to assess the overall fit of the proposed model and to test hypotheses.

To refine all measures for the structural model, a measurement model was estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. The initial 31 items developed for measurement were subjected to a CFA. Based on the results of the CFA, five items were deleted because of low factor loadings including IN2, DN3, MN1, PB5 and BI1. The results of CFA on the remaining 26 items showed an excellent fit to the data ( χ2¼ 541.36, df¼ 273, po0.001, χ2/df¼ 1.983, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)¼ 0.067 and comparative fit index (CFI)¼ 0.915). Since there were missing data reported, therefore mean and intercepts were estimated and only CFI was reported. Consequently, this measurement model was used for all further analyses.

A reliability test was conducted to assess internal consistency of multiple indicators for each construct. As shown in Table II, all values of Cronbach α estimates are between 0.62 and 0.92; multiple measures in this study are reliable for assessing each construct (Nunnally, 1978). A construct validity test was conducted using the factor loadings within the constructs, average variance extracted (AVE), and the correlation between constructs. As shown in Table II, all standardised factor loadings emerged fairly high. This showed that the measurement had convergent validity (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). As shown in Table II, convergent validity was also indicated because all AVE values exceeded suggested cut-off value of 0.50 (Hair et al., 2012).

The structural model SEM procedures were employed to assess the proposed conceptual model. It was performed by using the maximum likelihood estimation method. Based on the

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recommendations of MacKenzie and Lutz (1989) pertaining to structural procedures, each latent construct was presented with a single index that it equal to the average score on the construct scale. χ2 value of the model and other model fits ( χ2¼ 541.36, df¼ 273, po0.001, χ2/df¼ 1.983, RMSEA¼ 0.067 including comparative fit index (CFI)¼ 0.915) revealed that the model fits with the data reasonably well. The structural results of the proposed model are depicted in Figure 1.

For the purpose of this study, several hypotheses have been tested. Table III shows the state of hypothesis acceptance and rejection. The hypothesised relationship between the perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions was not supported by the corresponding estimate of −0.009 (pW0.05) and therefore H1 is rejected. The path coefficient of the relationship between the attitude and behavioural intentions was 0.008 ( pW0.05) indicating an insignificant effect. Therefore these findings also reject H2. The relationship between the injunctive norms and behavioural intentions was 0.398 ( po0.05) indicating that inductive norms influence behavioural intentions significantly and thus H3 was supported. The path coefficient of the relationship between the descriptive norms and behavioural intentions was 0.131 ( pW0.05) indicating an insignificant effect. Therefore these findings reject H4. The path coefficient of the relationship between the moral norms and behavioural intentions was −0.142 ( pW0.05) which indicates an insignificant effect and therefore these findings reject H5. The path coefficient of the relationship between the past behaviour and behavioural intentions was 0.493 ( po0.05) indicating that past behaviour

Variables Items Factor loadings Cronbach α AVE

Perceived behavioural control PBC5 0.626 0.757 0.506 PBC3 0.711 PBC2 0.591 PBC1 0.704

Attitude Attitude6 0.826 0.921 0.648 Attitude5 0.843 Attitude4 0.902 Attitude3 0.772 Attitude2 0.792 Attitude1 0.676

Injunctive norms IN6 0.913 0.83 0.740 IN5 0.866 IN3 0.798

Descriptive norms DN4 0.834 0.675 0.500 DN2 0.749 DN1 0.492

Moral norms MN4 0.736 0.677 0.517 MN2 0.701

Past behaviour PB1 0.864 0.772 0.637 PB2 0.726

Behavioural intentions BI2 0.817 0.879 0.569 BI3 0.569 BI4 0.779 BI5 0.823

Behaviour B1 0.513 0.625 0.591 B2 0.541

Note: AVE, average variance extracted

Table II. Standardised confirmatory

factor loadings

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influences behavioural intentions significantly and thus H6 was supported. Lastly, path coefficient of the relationship between the behavioural intentions and actual behaviour was 0.493 ( po0.05) indicating that behavioural intentions influence the actual behaviour significantly and thus H7 was supported.

Discussion The primary objectives behind this research were twofold; to empirically test the extended TBP model in a developing country collectivist culture, and to investigate money donation intentions and behaviours among Malaysians. There are studies conducted to unleash the charity donation intentions and behaviour but current study uniquely presents a developing country perspective. Services marketing researchers call for empirical investigation to present the developing country perspective where current study is a scholarly contribution (Frimpong and Wilson, 2013). There are studies found where researchers employed the extended TPB model to investigate money donation intentions but in western settings (Knowles et al., 2012; Smith and McSweeney, 2007). Current study is a useful addition to the limited body of knowledge available to investigate money donation intentions through TPB. Another contribution is seen in the methodological rigour. Two strengths of the methodology have been envisioned. First, the study presents a non-student sample that was evident in previous studies performed to understand money donation intentions through applying TPB

Perceived Behavioural

Attitude

Injunctive Norm

Descriptive Norm

Moral Norm

Past Behaviour

Behavioural Intention

Behaviour

0.493*

–0.142

0.398*

0.008

–0.009

0.131

0.278*

Figure 1. Structural results of the proposed model

Hypothesised path Standardised coefficients p Decision

H1 BI ← PBC −0.009 0.961 Not supported H2 BI ← ATT 0.008 0.908 Not supported H3 BI ← IN 0.398 *** Supported H4 BI ← DN 0.131 0.321 Not supported H5 BI ← MN −0.142 0.334 Not supported H6 BI ← PB 0.493 *** Supported H7 BI ← BI 0.278 *** Supported Notes: *po0.05; **po0.01

Table III. Results of the structural model

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model. Second, a new model has been proposed by using structural equation model procedures while previous studies are limited to multivariate analysis of regression and correlations. There were seven hypotheses proposed and three were found supporting the model. The past behaviour (0.493) and injunctive norms (0.398) were found significantly contributing to the money donation intentions in the model. The impact of past behaviour and injunctive norms on intentions to donate money has been well highlighted by previous studies (Rivis and Sheeran, 2003). The path from intentions to actual behavioural intentions to donate money was also considered significant and supporting the hypothesis. The results also support the notion that norms influence the intentions to donate money in collectivist cultures (Chan and Lau, 2001). Malaysians are a collectivist society where people love to be part of a social circuit and take responsibility for the actions and behaviours of people in the group (Hofstede, 2003). This is why “norms” are stressed and influence the intentions to donate money. In collectivist societies, people like to be part of a group and their intentions affect each other’s’ behaviours. The past behaviour of Malaysians is found to predict intentions to donate money which can be attributed to a function of reference group members (Yun and Park, 2010). The results reveal that “Perceived behavioural control” and “attitude” do not significantly contribute towards intentions to donate money. Both of these elements take into consideration a person’s “individuality” towards making decisions. However, since Malaysians are a collectivist society and inn these societies’ reference group members affect the decision making. Hence, people may not like to exhibit personal control over their actions even to donate money (Hofstede, 2003; Park and Lee, 2009). In an era where charitable organisations are struggling to raise funds, this research provides some useful insights. First, organisations should try to inculcate the role and impact of reference group members in the marketing communications programs to influence the Malaysians to donate generously. This is because injunctive norms are found to strongly influence the intentions to donate as compared with attitude and perceived behavioural control. Second, customer loyalty must be stressed because past behaviour strongly affects the intentions to donate money. Some consumer promotions and other related benefits can be offered to existing customers in order to gain some new leads. This can be achieved by developing a customer database to maintain the records to keep in touch with them during various marketing campaigns.

Limitations and future research Despite several strengths such as sampling a non-student population, robust statistical techniques, and sound theoretical base, the study has some limitations. First, the data collected has not been presented through the different religious beliefs in a multicultural society such as Malaysia. It has also been noted that people from all religions donate but across the religions differences have not been explored (Ranganathan and Henley, 2008). Religiosity is an excellent avenue for future research in the area of charity donation. Second, the data has been collected from the city of Kuala Lampur which may not be representative of the whole country population. Future studies are highly recommended to select a more diversified group of individuals. Third, the time horizon of this study is cross-sectional which may not represent the difference of opinions over a period of time. There are many events as well as disasters which can change the attitude and behaviour of donors. Future researchers are recommended to also conduct longitudinal studies to uncover differences in donation intentions over a period of time.

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Further reading Park, H.S. and Lee, D.W. (2009), “A test of theory of planned behaviour in Korea: participation in

alcohol-related social gatherings”, International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 44, pp. 418-433. Sargeant, A., Ford, J. and West, D.C. (2000), “Widening the appeal of charity”, International

Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Vol. 5 No. 4, pp. 318-332.

About the authors Muhammad Kashif is currently working as an Assistant Professor of Marketing at the GIFT University, Gujranwala Pakistan. He holds eight years of full time teaching experience and has taught a wide range of marketing subjects. In addition to teaching at the MBA levels, Kashif has published extensively in leading journals such as; Global Business Review, Business and Management Quarterly Review, International Journal of Police Science and Management, and Review for Marketing Theory and Practice. He also provides trainings and consultancy to leading service organisations in Pakistan. His current areas of interest include welfare and Islamic marketing of services. Assistant Professor Muhammad Kashif is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: kashif@gift.edu.pk

Syamsulang Sarifuddin is a Research Associate at the University of Malaya. He has been an expert in quantitative data analysis by using econometric models and structural equation modelling. He also has been involved in providing trainings to postgraduate research students about SEM procedures. His areas of expertise include Economics analysis in Asian countries.

Azizah Hassan is an Entrepreneur and a well-known Trainer, based in Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. She has extensively provided data analysis software trainings to postgraduate research students in Malaysia. Her areas of expertise include Entrepreneurship and Qualitative data analysis.

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