Networks for Efficient Operations and Sustainability

Networks for Efficient Operations and Sustainability

Chapter 4

Networks for Efficient

Operations and

Sustainability

Prepared by Dr. Derek Sedlack, South University

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Network Fundamentals

Bandwidth: the capacity or throughput per second of a network measured in bits per second (bps).

Protocol: rules and standards that govern device functionality.

TCP/IP: Basic communication protocol of the Internet supported by every major network operating system.

Network Speed: data flowing that depends on the amount of traffic.

Commonly referred to by generation (2G, 3G, etc.).

Data transferred over guided (wired) or unguided (wireless and mobile) media.

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Network Fundamentals

Bandwidth: the capacity or throughput per second of a network measured in bits per second (bps).

Protocol: rules and standards that govern device functionality.

TCP/IP: Basic communication protocol of the Internet supported by every major network operating system.

Network Speed: data flowing that depends on the amount of traffic.

Commonly referred to by generation (3G, 4G, etc.).

Data transferred over guided (fixed-line broadband) or unguided (wireless and mobile broadband) media.

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

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Figure 4.4 Four drivers of global mobile traffic through 2018.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

High Demand for High-Capacity Networks

Voice over IP (VoIP): voice calls (analog) converted to digital signals.

VoIP voice and data transmissions travel in packets over telephone wires.

Rely on 5 basic functions through switches and routers:

Communication

Mobility

Collaboration

Relationships

Search

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Quality of Service (QoS)

Latent-sensitivity: data such as real-time voice and high-quality video.

Prioritized Traffic: data and apps that are time-delay-sensitive or latency-sensitive apps.

Throttle Traffic: gives latency-sensitive apps priority, other types of traffic need to be held back (throttled).

Traffic Shaping: the ability to prioritize and throttle network traffic.

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Pure IP Networks

WiMAX

IEEE 802.16

30 miles range

70 Megabits per second (Mbps)

Line-of-site not required

Same principles as WiFi

Long-Term Evolution (LTE)

GSM deployed by Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile

100 Mbps download, 50Mbps upload

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Near-Field Communication (NFC)

Close proximity radio waves more secure than other wireless technologies

Apple iWatch

Digital tickets providing access to concerts

Kiosks to transmit moves in Supermarkets

Transmit public transport payment through phones

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Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Mashup

General term referring to the integration of two or more technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi

Provide intelligence

Inter-Automobile collision avoidance

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Application Program Interface (API)

Boundary where two separate systems meet.

Consists of a set of functions, commands, and protocols used by programmers for OS-interactivity without having to write a program from scratch.

Can be automated for simplified usability.

Twitter

Facebook

Amazon

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Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

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Figure 4.8 API value chain in business.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Why has IPv6 become increasingly important?

What is an IP address?

What are bandwidth and broadband?

Briefly described the basic network functions.

What is the difference between circuit switching and packet switching?

What is the difference between 3G and 4G?

What are the mobile network standards?

Define bandwidth and broadband.

Explain the Net neutrality debate.

What are two applications of NFC?

What are the benefits of APIs?

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. IPv4 can support roughly 4.3 billion unique IP address. IPv6 can support 340 trillion, trillion, trillion addresses. IPv6 offers also enhanced quality of service that is needed by the latest in video, interactive games, and e-commerce. In April 2014 ARIN, the group that oversees Internet addresses, reported that IPv4 addresses were running out—making it urgent that enterprises move to the newer IPv6

 

2. Every device that communicates with a network must have a unique identifying IP address. An IP address is comparable to a telephone number or home address.

 

3. Bandwidth is the communication capacity of a network. Bandwidth is the amount of data that passes through a network connection over time as measured in bits per second (bps). For an analogy to bandwidth, consider a pipe used to transport water. The larger the diameter of the pipe, the greater the throughput (volume) of water that flows through it and the faster water is transferred through it.

 

Broadband is short for broad bandwidth and means high capacity.

 

4. Business networks support basic functions including: communication, mobility, collaboration, relationships, and search.

Communication: Provides sufficient capacity for human and machine generated transmissions, such as being able to talk, text, tweet, fax, send messages, etc.

Mobility: Provides secure, trusted, and reliable access from any mobile device anywhere at satisfactory download (DL) and upload (UL) speeds.

Collaboration: Supports teamwork activities that may be synchronous or asynchronous; brain storming; and knowledge and document sharing.

Relationships: Manages interaction with customers, supply chain partners, shareholders, employees, regulatory agencies, etc.

Search: Able to locate data, contracts, documents, spreadsheets, and other knowledge within an organization easily and efficiently.

 

5. The two types of switching are:

Circuit switching: A circuit is a dedicated connection between a source and a destination. Circuit switching is older technology that was used for telephone calls. The distinguishing characteristic is that the circuit cannot be used by any other call until the session (connection) is ended. It is inefficient for digital transmission.

Packet switching: Packet switching transfers data or voice in packets. Files are broken into packets, numbered sequentially, and routed individually to their destination. When received at the destination, the packets are reassembled into their proper sequence.

The astute student may realize: The path of the signal is digital, and is neither dedicated nor exclusive. That is, the networks are shared. When packets are transmitted over a shared network, such as the Internet, they may follow different paths to the destination, where they are reassembled into the original message once all of them have arrived.

 

6. 4G delivers average download rates of 3Mbps or higher. In contrast, today’s 3G networks typically deliver average download speeds about one-tenth of that rate. Even though individual networks, ranging from 2G to 3G, started separately with their own purposes, soon they will be converted to the 4G network. 4G is based purely on the packet-based Internet Protocol (IP) – unlike current 2G and 3G networks that have a circuit-switched subsystem. Users can get 4G wireless connectivity through one of the following standards:

1. WiMAX is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard and the metropolitan area network (MAN) access standard. IEEE 802.16 specifications are:

• Range: 30 miles (50 km) from base station

• Speed: 70 megabits per second (Mbps)

• Line-of-sight not needed between user and base station

 

WiMAX operates on the same basic principles as Wi-Fi in that it transmits data from one device to another via radio signals.

 

2. LTE (Long-Term Evolution) is a GSM-based technology that is deployed by Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile. LTE has download data rates of 100 Mbps and upload data rates of 50 Mbps.

 

7. Mobile broadband: Describes various types of wireless high-speed Internet access through a portable modem, telephone or other device. Various network standards may be used, such as GPRS, 4G, 3G, WiMAX, LTE UMTS/HSPA, EV-DO, and some portable satellite-based systems.

 

The textbook discusses 4G standards, so students’ answers will probably be focused along this line. In general, users can get 4G wireless connectivity through one of two standards: WiMAX or LTE (Long-Term Evolution).

 

8. In January 2014 an appeals court struck down the FCC’s 2010 decision (providing a Net “semi-neutrality”.) The court allowed ISPs to create a two-tiered Internet but to avoid anticompetitive practices, and banned “unreasonable” discrimination against providers. However, the rules do not explicitly forbid “paid prioritization,” which would allow a company to pay an ISP for faster data transmission.

 

Those in favor of Net neutrality. They want a one-tier system in which all Internet data packets are treated the same, regardless of their content, destination, or source. In contrast, those who favor the two-tiered system argue that there have always been different levels of Internet service and that a two-tiered system would enable more freedom of choice and promote Internet-based commerce.

 

9. NFC enables two devices within close proximity to establish a communication channel and transfer data through radio waves. NFC is location-aware technologies that are more secure than other wireless technologies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. Unlike RFID, NFC is a two-way communication tool.

 

Answers may vary. Location-aware NFC technology, such as smartphones, can be used to make purchases in restaurants, resorts, hotels, theme parks and theaters, at gas stations, and on buses and trains. They also can provide consumers with content to complement their current activity, such as recipe or idea videos when shopping at a supermarket having proper NFC tag-equipped units.

10. For programmers: The benefits of APIs are that they simplify the programmer’s job and ensure that all programs using the same API use that resource in the same manner. APIs are the common method for accessing information, websites, and databases.

 

Business benefits of APIs include:

APIs are channels to new customers and markets: APIs enable partners to use business assets to extend the reach of a company’s products or services to customers and markets they might not reach easily.

APIs promote innovation: Through an API, people who are committed to a challenge or problem can solve it themselves.

APIs are a better way to organize IT: APIs promote innovation by allowing everyone in a company to use each other’s assets without delay.

APIs create a path to lots of Apps: Apps are going to be a crucial channel in the next 10 years. Apps are powered by APIs. Developers use APIs and combinations of APIs to create new user experiences.

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Modern Mobile Communications

2Mbps per mobile device by 2016

66% of traffic through smartphones by 2018

Mobile traffic surpasses 2.5EB*/month by 2018

Greater than 15% all traffic through tablets by 2016

Greater than 50% mobile traffic is 4G by 2018

* Exabyte = 1 billion Gigabytes

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Mobile Networks

Bluetooth: short-range wireless communication technology allowing device pairing.

Wi-Fi: standard way to wirelessly connect computing devices through routers commonly connected to the Internet.

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Mobile Networks

Bluetooth: short-range wireless communication technology allowing device pairing.

Wi-Fi: standard way to wirelessly connect computing devices through routers commonly connected to the Internet.

WiMax: transmits voice, data, and video over high-frequency radio signals designed as alternative to cable and DSL.

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Mobile Networks Evaluation Factors

Simple

Connected

Intelligent

Trusted

Chapter 4

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Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

What factors are contributing to mobility?

Why is strategic planning of mobile networks important?

How does Wi-Fi work?

What is a WLAN?

Why is WiMAX important?

What factors should be considered when selecting a mobile network?

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1.Answers may vary. Factors contributing to mobility can include the following:

New wireless technologies such as WiMAX-Wireless Broadband and standards such as 8.11n

High-speed wireless networks such as 4G

Multitasking mobile devices

More robust mobile OSs and their applications

Increased competitive pressure as others start adopting mobile technology for strategic applications

 

2. Organizations are recognizing the strategic value of mobile technology. So, organizations are moving away from ad hoc adoption of mobile devices and network infrastructure to a more strategic planning build-out of their mobile capabilities. As technologies that make up the mobile infrastructure evolve, identifying strategic technologies and avoiding wasted investments require more extensive planning and forecasting.

 

3. Wi-Fi is a technology that allows computers to share a network or internet connection wirelessly without the need to connect to a commercial network. Wi-Fi networks beam packets over short distances using part of the radio spectrum, or they can extend over larger areas, such as municipal Wi-Fi networks. Municipal networks are not common because of huge costs.

 

Wi-Fi is the standard way computers connect to wireless networks. Nearly all computers have built-in Wi-Fi chips that allow users to find and connect to wireless routers. The router must be connected to the Internet in order to provide Internet access to connected devices. Wi-Fi networking standards are:

 

802.11b. This standard shares spectrum with 2.4 GHz cordless phones, microwave ovens, and many Bluetooth products. Data are transferred at distances up to 100 meters or 328 feet.

802.11a. This standard runs on 12 channels in the 5 GHz spectrum in North America, which reduces interference issues. Data are transferred about 5 times faster than 802.11b, improving the quality of streaming media. It has extra bandwidth for large files. Since the 802.11a and b standards are not interoperable, data sent from an 802.11b network cannot be accessed by 802.11a networks.

802.11g. This standard runs on three channels in 2.4 GHz spectrum, but at the speed of 802.11a. It is compatible with the 802.11b standard.

802.11n. This standard improves upon prior 802.11 standards by adding multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and other newer features. Frequency ranges from 2.4 GHz to 5GHz with a data rate of about 22 Mbps, but perhaps as high as 100 Mbps.

 

4. A WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) is a type of local area network that uses high-frequency radio waves to communicate between computers or devices such as printers, which are referred to as nodes on the network. A WLAN typically extends an existing wired LAN by attaching a wireless access point (AP) to a wired network.

 

5. Wireless broadband WiMAX transmits voice, data, and video over high-frequency radio signals to businesses, homes, and mobile devices. It was designed to bypass traditional telephone lines and is an alternative to cable and DSL. WiMAX is based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards and the metropolitan area network (MAN) access standard. Its range is 20 to 30 miles and it does not require a clear line of sight to function.

 

6. When evaluating mobile network solutions, four factors to consider are:

1. Simple: Easy to deploy, manage and use.

2. Connected: Always makes the best connection possible.

3. Intelligent: Works behind the scenes, easily integrating with other systems.

4. Trusted: Enables secure and reliable communications.

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Working in Modern Groups

Group workers can be located in different places or work at different times.

Group members may work for the same or different organizations.

Data, information, or knowledge may be located in many sources that may be external to the organization.

Create group dynamics – group processes by design or default.

Chapter 4

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Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Virtual Collaboration

Avoid travel expenses

Increase numbers of sessions

Record and store data in real-time

Streamline work processes, minimize information overload, generate new ideas, and boost innovation through online software.

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Virtual Collaboration Continued…

Improved retailer-supplier collaboration through web-based electronic data interchange (EDI).

Intranets provide inter-company data access, sharing, and collaboration through portals or gateways.

Extranets are private, company-owned networks remotely accessible via the Internet.

Online brainstorming through the Internet

Evernote

iMindmap Online

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Virtual Private Networks

Virtual tunnel routed through the Internet with software and hardware encryption.

Chapter 4

VPN

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Why is group work challenging?

What are the benefits of working in groups?

What might limit the use of in-person brainstorming?

How can online brainstorming tools overcome those limits?

What is the difference between an intranet and an extranet?

How does a virtual private network (VPN) provide security?

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. Group work involves processes that can be quite complex depending on the following factors:

Group members may be located in different places or work at different times.

Group members may work for the same or for different organizations.

Some of the needed data, information, or knowledge may be located in many sources, several of which are external to the organization.

Despite the long history and benefits of collaborative work, groups are not always successful.

 

2. Answers may vary. In-person brainstorming can be limited by travel expense if members are geographically dispersed. Other limiting factors, such as schedules, time zones, and available resources, such as an available meeting place, may limit in-person brainstorming.

 

3. Online brainstorming tools can be accessed virtually from anywhere Internet access is available. Many of these tools allow users to post comments on their own time rather than having to meet at a particular time, however, virtual meetings may be necessary as well.

 

4. Intranets are used within a company for data access, sharing, and collaboration.

An extranet is a private, company-owned network that can be accessed remotely via the Internet. It connects two or more companies, suppliers, vendors, partners, or customers, so they can securely share information.

 

5. Virtual private networks (VPNs) encrypt the data packets before they are transferred over the network and decrypt at the receiving end.

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Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Wireless Networks and Mobile Infrastructure

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Global Warming

Upward trend in global mean temperature (GMT) rising more than 20C since preindustrial times.

Damages include water and food scarcity, rising sea levels, and greater incidence and severity of disease.

Sustainability

Reduce

Reuse

Recycle

Recover

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Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Unsustainability

Profit-motivated without concern for damage to the environment contributing to climate change threatening quality of life.

Conduct that is unethical, socially irresponsible, and/or environmentally damaging.

Sustainability

Reduce

Reuse

Recycle

Recover

Chapter 4

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Information Systems: The Basics

Chapter 4

Figure 2.8 Input-processing-output model.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sustainability and Ethical Issues

Chapter 4

Figure 2.4 Data (or information) silos are ISs that do not have the capability to

exchange data with other ISs, making timely coordination and communication across

functions or departments difficult.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Data Networks, IP Addresses, and APIs

Chapter 4

Figure 2.5 Factors that are increasing demand for collaboration technology.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Global, mobile workforce

62% of the workforce works outside an office at some point. This number is increasing.

Mobility-driven consumerization

Growing number of cloud collaboration services.

Principle of “any”

Growing need to connect anybody, anytime, anywhere on any device

Data Centers, Cloud Computing, and Virtualization

Unified Data Center compared to traditional data integration and replication methods:

Chapter 4

Greater Agility

Streamlined Approach

Better Insight

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Collaboration and Communication Technologies

Why do some experts warn that carbon emission reductions between 50 percent and 85 percent are necessary by 2050?

What contributes to the rise of global mean temperature?

What is the greenhouse effect?

How does the use of mobile devices contribute to the level of greenhouse gases?

What is ICT’s role in global warming?

Why is global warming hotly debated?

Explain the goal of sustainability.

Explain the characteristics of a life out of control.

Chapter 4

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. The Prince of Wales’ Corporate Leaders Group on Climate Change holds that carbon emission reductions between 50 percent and 85 percent are necessary by 2050 to prevent the global temperature from rising too much too fast because of the greenhouse effect.

 

2. Scientists have concluded that increases in CO2 resulting from human activities have thrown the earth’s natural carbon cycle off balance, increasing global temperatures.

 

3. The greenhouse effect is the holding of heat within the earth’s atmosphere.

 

4. Almost all of these devices are powered by the burning of fossil fuels.

 

5. Climate Group found that ICT plays a key role in reducing global warming by transforming the way people and businesses use IT. The role of IT includes emission reduction and energy savings not only in the sector itself, but also by transforming how and where people work. The most obvious ways are by substituting digital formats—telework, video-conferencing, e-paper, and mobile and e-commerce—for physical formats.

 

6. Many scientists and experts are extremely alarmed by global warming and climate change, but other experts outright deny that they are occurring.

 

7. Answers may vary. The goal is to preserve the earth’s capacity to support human life by curbing emissions and reducing environmental impact, yet preserving the ability of businesses to show a return on investment (ROI) through the use of four factors essential to preserving the environment: reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover.

 

8. IT keeps people connected with no real off switch. Tools that are meant to improve the productivity and quality of life in general can also intrude on personal time. In our hyper-connected world, people are always on, collaborating, communicating, and creating—and not always aware of how technology impacts them. Downtime has given way to filling every moment with bite-sized chunks of information, education, and entertainment—seemingly packing our lives with productivity.

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