Project Management and SDLC

Project Management and SDLC

Chapter 13

Project Management and SDLC

Prepared by Dr. Derek Sedlack, South University

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

System Development Life Cycle

Project Management Concepts

Project Management Concepts

Deliverable

Items that you hand off to the client or management for their review and approval and that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project.

Project Portfolio Management (PPM)

Set of business practices to manage projects as a strategic portfolio.

Business Case

Identifies an opportunity, problem, or need and the desired business outcomes of the project.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Management Concepts

Project Portfolio Management Path

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Map proposed projects to organizational strategies.

Assess the value that a proposed project brings to the company.

Assess the complexity of proposed projects.

Prioritize project proposals for project selection.

Project Management Concepts

Operations vs. Projects

Operations

Business as usual

Projects

Clearly defined scope, deliverables, and results.

Estimated time frame or schedule subject to a high degree of uncertainty.

Estimated budget subject to a high degree of uncertainty.

Requirement of extensive interaction among participants.

Tasks that may compete or conflict with other business activities.

Risky but with a high profit potential or benefits.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Management Concepts

Chapter 13

Figure 13.3 Project success triple constraint.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Scope

Time

Project

Success

Cost

Project Management Concepts

Scope Creep

Project growth is the piling up of small changes that by themselves are manageable but in aggregate are significant.

Contributes to overages in budget, deadline, and/or resources.

Standard project management approaches reduce scope creep.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Management Concepts

What is a deliverable?

What is the purpose of PPM?

What distinguishes a project from operations?

What are the triple constraints?

How can scope creep contribute to project failure?

What identifies an opportunity, problem, or need and the desired business outcomes of the project?

What is the approach that examines projects holistically and manages them as a strategic portfolio?

What are the items that you hand off to the client or management for their review and approval?

What are the three attributes that must be managed effectively for successful completion and closure of any project?

What is the term for the piling up of small changes that by themselves are manageable but in aggregate are significant?

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. A deliverable is an item that you hand off to the client or management for their review and approval and that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project.

 

2. PPM is a set of business practices to manage projects as a strategic portfolio. PPM ensures the alignment of programs and projects with organizational objectives.

 

3. Projects differ from operations or business as usual based on these characteristics of a project:

Clearly defined scope, deliverables, and results

An estimated time frame or schedule that is subject to a high degree of uncertainty

An estimated budget that is subject to a high degree of uncertainty

The requirement of extensive interaction among participants

Tasks that may compete or conflict with other business activities, which makes planning and scheduling difficult

Risky but with a high profit potential or benefits

 

4. The triple constraint refers to the three attributes that must be managed effectively for successful completion and closure of any project:

 

Scope. The project scope is the definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish—its outcomes or deliverables. Scope is measured in terms of the project size, goals, and requirements.

Time. A project is made up of tasks. Each task has a start date and an end date. The duration of a project extends from the start date of the first task to the finish date of the last task. Time needed to produce the deliverables is naturally related to the scope and availability of resources allocated to the project.

Cost. This is the estimation of the amount of money that will be required to complete the project. Cost itself encompasses various things, such as resources, labor rates for contractors, risk estimates, and bills of materials, et cetera. All aspects of the project that have a monetary component are made part of the overall cost structure. Projects are approved subject to their costs.

 

These constraints are interrelated so they must be managed together for the project to be completed on time, within budget, and to specification.

 

5. Scope creep refers to the growth of the project, which might seem inconsequential to the requestor. Scope creep is the piling up of small changes that by themselves are manageable but in aggregate are significant.

6. A Project Business Case.

 

7. Project portfolio management (PPM) is a set of business practices to examine projects holistically and manage them as a strategic portfolio.

 

8. A deliverable is an item that you hand off to the client or management for their review and approval and that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project.

In this section, the project Business Case and Statement of Work are items needing approval.

 

9. The triple constraint refers to the three attributes that must be managed effectively for successful completion and closure of any project: Scope, Time, and Cost.

 

10. Scope creep.

8

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

System Development Life Cycle

Project Management Concepts

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Project Business Case

Identifies an opportunity, problem, or need and the desired business outcomes of the project.

Statement of Work (SOW)

A definitive statement that defines the project plan, but does not offer any options or alternatives in the scope.

After the project plan in the SOW is reviewed, a go or no-go decision is made.

Go/No-Go Decision

Formal decision made by PM, sponsor, and appropriate executives and stakeholders.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Chapter 13

13.4 Project management key stages and activities.

Business case & SOW

Project plan review using PPM; then go/no-go decision

Project initiation & risk management planning

Project execution, tracking & control

Project closure & lessons learned

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Identifies all work or activities that need to be performed, the schedule of work, and who will perform the work.

Milestones

Used to manage the project work effort, monitor results, and report meaningful status to project stakeholders.

Crowdfunding

Raising funds for a project from the public, or crowd, via the Web.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Responsibility Matrix

Shows who has primary responsibility and who has support responsibility for the activities listed in the WBS.

Gantt Chart

A bar chart that shows the timeline of the project schedule.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Baseline (Master Plan)

Finalized and accepted project plan.

Changed only through formal change control processes.

Variance

Any change to the baseline.

Crowdfunding

Raising funds for a project from the public, or crowd, via the Web.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

If the business case is accepted, what document is prepared?

What events are used to manage the project work effort, monitor results, and report a meaningful status to project stakeholders?

What is the longest path of tasks through a project?

What shows who has primary responsibility and who has support responsibility for the tasks listed in the WBS?

What is the type of bar chart that shows the timeline of the project schedule?

When the project plan is finalized and agreed to, what is any change to the baseline?

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. If the business case is accepted, a statement of work (SOW) is prepared.

 

2. Milestones are used to manage the project work effort, monitor results, and report meaningful status to project stakeholders.

 

3. A critical path is the longest path of tasks through a project.

 

4. A responsibility matrix shows who has primary responsibility and who has support responsibility for the activities listed in the WBS.

 

5. A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart that graphically displays the project schedule.

 

6. Any change to the baseline is a deviation, or variance, to the plan—and it needs to be documented.

15

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

System Development Life Cycle

Project Management Concepts

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

Integrated Change Control

Process helps to manage the disruption resulting from requested changes and corrective actions across the project life cycle.

Required to defend:

Approved/rejected change requests

Updates to the project plan/scope

Approved corrective and preventive actions

Approved/validated defect repair

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

Critical Path

Longest path of tasks through a project. Extends the length of the project with delays unless something is done to compensate. Contains critical tasks or activities.

Critical Tasks

Tasks or activities on the critical path that must be completed on schedule in order for the project to finish on time.

Noncritical tasks

Tasks or activities not on the critical path, but may go critical if delayed enough.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

Chapter 13

13.8 Project controls.

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

Project Control

Used to identify when to declare the ongoing project a failure and kill it.

Sunk Cost

Money already spent on the project.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

Project Closing and Postmortem

Project closure does not benefit the completed project.

The enterprise and people who worked on the project benefit.

Post-project reviews, or postmortems, identify the reasons the project was successful or not, strengths and weaknesses of the project plan, how problems were detected and resolved, and how the project was successful in spite of them.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

What processes help to ensure that the impacts resulting from requested changes and corrective actions are managed across the project life cycle?

What is the length of a project?

Assuming no changes are made, what happens when a task on the critical path is delayed?

What costs should not be considered when deciding whether to kill a project?

When are lessons learned from a completed project identified?

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. Integrated change control processes help to manage the disruption resulting from requested changes and corrective actions across the project life cycle.

 

2. The critical path is the length of the project.

 

3. The entire project is delayed.

 

4. The money already spent on the project, or sunk costs, should not be considered in the decision.

 

5. These are identified during the post-project review, or postmortem.

22

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Project Planning, Execution, and Budget

Project Monitoring, Control, and Closing

System Development Life Cycle

Project Management Concepts

System Development Life Cycle

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

The traditional system development method for large IT projects, such as IT infrastructure or an enterprise system.

A structured framework that consists of a sequential set of processes.

Highly susceptible to scope creep through:

Additional feature requests

Unnecessary stakeholders

Technological change/improvement

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Development Life Cycle

Chapter 13

System Development Life Cycle

Objectives

Expectations

Specifications

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Initial Idea

Requirements Analysis

System Analysis

Development

Implementation

Maintenance

System Development Life Cycle

Requirements Analysis

Deficiencies are identified and used to specify new system requirements.

More time invested in analysis mean greater probability of IS success.

System Analysis

Design of the proposed system.

Feasibility Studies

Technical, Economic, Legal and Organizational, and Behavioral.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Development Life Cycle

System Development

Creation based on functional objectives to solve the business problem.

Testing

Verification that apps, interfaces, data transfers, etc., work correctly under all possible conditions.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Development Life Cycle

Implementation

Conversion of the old system to the new system.

Parallel: simultaneous transfer

Direct: cut off and migration

Pilot: test new than roll out

Phased: specific components in stages

Maintenance

Perform audits to assess capabilities and determine operational correctness.

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

System Development Life Cycle

What are the stages of the SDLC?

Why is information system design highly susceptible to scope creep?

What can be done to prevent runaway projects?

Explain the feasibility tests and their importance.

What are four conversion methods?

Chapter 13

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Suggested Answers:

1. The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the traditional systems development method for large IT projects, such as IT infrastructure or an enterprise system. The SDLC is a structured framework that consists of a sequential set of processes. Starting with an initial idea, the SDLC processes are requirements analysis, systems analysis and design, development and testing, implementation, and maintenance.

 

Each process consists of well-defined tasks that depend on the scope of the project. The processes are iterative, which means that they are revised when new information or conditions make a revision the smart thing to do. Iteration does not mean that system development should be subject to infinite revisions or scope creep.

 

2. IS design is highly susceptible to scope creep for many reasons. Intended users ask for additional features. People who were not intended users ask to be included. Technology changed from the time the business case was written and system development began. The actions of a competitor, supplier, or regulatory agency triggered additional requests for functionality.

 

3. Because scope creep is expensive, project managers impose controls on changes requested by users. These controls help to prevent runaway projects.

 

4. The feasibility study determines the probability of success of the proposed project and provides a rough assessment of the project‘s technical, economic, organizational, and behavioral feasibility. The feasibility study is critically important to the systems development process because, done properly, the study can prevent organizations from making expensive mistakes, such as creating systems that will not work, that will not work efficiently, or that people cannot or will not use. The Census Bureau case in IT at Work 13.1 is an example. The various feasibility analyses also give the stakeholders an opportunity to decide what metrics to use to measure how a proposed system meets their objectives.

Technical Feasibility. Technical feasibility determines if the required technology, IT infrastructure, data structures, analytics, and resources can be developed and/or acquired to solve the business problem. Technical feasibility also determines if the organization‘s existing technology can be used to achieve the project’s performance objectives.

Economic Feasibility. Economic feasibility determines if the project is an acceptable financial risk and if the company can afford the expense and time needed to complete the project. Economic feasibility addresses two primary questions: Do the benefits outweigh the costs of the project? Can the project be completed as scheduled?

Management can assess economic feasibility by using cost–benefit analysis and financial techniques such as time value of money, return on investment (ROI), net present value (NPV), and breakeven analysis. Return on investment is the ratio of the net income attributable to a project divided by the average cost of resources invested in the project. NPV is the net amount by which project benefits exceed project costs, after allowing for the cost of capital and the time value of money. Breakeven analysis calculates the point at which the cumulative cash flow from a project equals the investment made in the project.

Calculating economic feasibility in IT projects is rarely straightforward. Part of the difficulty is that some benefits are intangible. For a proposed system that involves big data, real time analytics, or 3D printing, there may be no previous evidence of what sort of financial payback can be expected.

Legal and organizational feasibility. Are there legal, regulatory, or environmental reasons why the project cannot or should not be implemented? This analysis looks at the company’s policies and politics, including impacts on power distribution and business relationships.

Behavioral feasibility. Behavioral feasibility considers human issues. All system development projects introduce change, and people generally resist change. Overt resistance from employees may take the form of sabotaging the new system (e.g., entering data incorrectly) or deriding the new system to anyone who will listen. Covert resistance typically occurs when employees simply do their jobs using their old methods.

Behavioral feasibility is concerned with assessing the skills and the training needed to use the new IS. In some organizations, a proposed system may require mathematical or linguistic skills beyond what the workforce currently possesses. In others, a workforce may simply need to improve their skills. Behavioral feasibility is as much about “can they use it” as it is about “will they use it.”

After the feasibility analysis, a “Go/No-Go” decision is reached. The project sponsor and project manager sign off on the decision. If it is a no-go decision, the project is put on the shelf until conditions are more favorable, or the project is discarded. If the decision is “go,” then the system development project proceeds.

 

5. Four conversion strategies are parallel, direct cut over, pilot, and phased.

 

In a parallel conversion, the old system and the new system operate simultaneously for a period of time. That is, both systems process the same data at the same time, and the outputs are compared. This type of conversion is the most expensive but least risky.

 

In a direct conversion, the old system is cut off and the new system is turned on at a certain point in time. This type of conversion is the least expensive, but it is the most risky if the new system does not work as planned.

 

A pilot conversion introduces the new system in one location to test it out. After the new system works properly, it is rolled out.

 

A phased conversion introduces components of the new system, such as individual modules, in stages. Each module is assessed, and, when it works properly, other modules are introduced until the entire new system is operational.

29


Comments are closed.