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Qualitative Research Design
Cultural competence and embrace among nurses is a must do issue in today’s healthcare environments (Easterby et al., 2012). As a result, this brings new challenges and concerns to nurses as they must provide safe, efficient, and culturally competent care to this diverse patient population (Ma, Zhu, Nan, & Yu, 2012). Today it is not sufficient for nurses to be clinically skillful, they must also possess necessary skill sets to deliver culturally competent care to a multicultural patient populace (Carpenter & Garcia, 2012). Study abroad is an effective method in which to provide hands-on learning opportunities to nursing students while immersing them in the culture and lifestyle of the patient (Bohman & Borglin, 2014).
The primary objective of this research is to comprehend the issue of social competence. Scholars are going to study abroad on and live there for a specified duration of time. The main aim is to impact cultural competence skills to nurse to make them more effective. Also, to enable nurses to handle patients from different backgrounds set up. Nurses are the backbone of the health sector, and they play a significant role. The study is going to improve cultural competence among nurses.
Cultural competence skills are lacking amongst nurses; student, graduate, and professional nurses alike (Kulbok, Mitchell, Glick, & Greiner, 2012). Although most nursing programs have implemented mandatory coursework surrounding culture and cultural competence, many nurses state that they feel unprepared to provide adequate care to culturally diverse patients (Ma et al., 2012). It has been noted that graduate nurses feel that their training was too vague and without exposure to patients from diverse backgrounds (Easterby et al., 2012). It is imperative that nurse educators address the gap between theory and clinical practice by providing appropriate learning opportunities in which nursing students are exposed to culturally diverse patient populations (Kulbok et al., 2012).
Purpose of the Study
The study is aimed at determining student perceptions of cultural competence after participation in a study abroad program (Bohman & Borglin, 2014). With the increased demands placed upon nurses to provide safe, adequate, and culturally competent nursing care to an increasingly diverse patient population the need for proper cultural competence training is imperative and must be addressed (Carpenter & Garcia, 2012). Many different teaching strategies exist; however, study abroad is a valid and reliable method in which to facilitate cultural competency in nursing students (Ma et al., 2012).
The study is going to use both narrative and Ethnography qualitative methods. The target population that is going to be used in this study is broad programs for students. A convenience sampling of nursing scholars pursuing masters in a nursing program from X University will be used to conduct this study (Easterby et al., 2012). The students will live and work alongside people from their host country during this excursion where they discover firsthand information about culture (Kulbok et al., 2012). The study program will take place in Port Elizabeth that is located in South Africa. The researcher will study the state of the local clinics, private and public hospital. The best-suited researcher is a nurse who will stay in the region to obtain firsthand information of the cultural competence and what it entails (Kulbok et al., 2012). Also, they will gain the necessary skills needed to care and communicate with patients who come from various backgrounds.
The study will look at pre- and post questionnaires of the students relating to their perception of cultural competency. Surveys, interviews, and reflection journals will be used to dissect the cultural competency perceptions of these nursing students (Kulbok et al., 2012). The data gathered from this study will be recorded, interpreted, and analyzed to determine themes, trends, and other factors which influence student perceptions of cultural competence (Carpenter & Garcia, 2012). It is essential for nurses to be culturally competent; therefore, this study is vital in examining the precipitating factors influencing student perceptions relating to cultural competence.
By the end of this study, the following questions are going to be addressed.
1. Does the student opinion on the issue of cultural competence change after undergoing abroad to study the program
2. How does live experience of studying the program abroad affects the student view of cultural competence?
3. What is the importance of cultural competence to nursing and nursing education?
The study is going to apply qualitative research method. The nurse researcher is supposed to familiarize themselves with the program before the study. Qualitative method is going to be used over quantitative. Some cases are best suited for quantitative. Hence, qualitative and quantitative are the primary research methods that will be used to collect and analyze data.
Strengths of using Qualitative Research method over Quantitative.
Qualitative data is expressed using numbers. It is shown using numbers and their names. The mains strengths of this method depend on the raw data collected and recorded descriptively. Quantitative data is represented statistically which is difficult to understand for a common person. This method does not depend on someone else theory to deduce conclusions. The method focuses on primary data where the researcher goes to the field and collect raw data. It is best suited for behavior and social studies.
The weakness of using Qualitative research over Quantitative
Quantitative research focuses on social phenomena. Cultural competence is social phenomena and nurse researchers need to use this approach to understand this concept fully. It does not depend on observations and interviews instead; it focuses on previous similar cases. Hence, the researcher is not compelled to go to the field and collect data, unlike qualitative research.
Qualitative Research Method
It is a type of method used by nurse researchers to complete the study of cultural competence. Researchers of this technique tend to use the inductive method. Inductive method is also referred as grounded theory. This type of research systematically conducts data through the setting of various categories. The method gives a clear insight of problem, and the researcher can understand and compare their study with research conducted by another person. A phenomenon is recognized and the explanation given about the data collected. After collection of the data, representation is quickly done and represented statistically. When researching a given topic, the ultimate goal in conducting the research paper is to answer the topic question. Gathering data to support the claims made is part of the qualitative research method. Whereas quantitative approach is a highly-structured method, a qualitative way is less. Data which is needed for a successful research paper is collected through interviews, observations, content, and analysis, among others. The data will be collected from some sources including those from interviews, content, and scholarly academic sources. Creating hypothesis encourages exploring of different research which is another characteristic of the qualitative methods. The following are the components of the qualitative research utilized by nurse researcher to complete this research.
The narrative analysis involves relying on visual representation, spoken words or written words. The emphasis in this method is usually on how the story is narrated (“Narrative Research – Analysis of Qualitative Data – Design & Method”, n. d.). In most cases, the stories based on life experiences of the narrator. Nurse researchers can use this method to become culturally competent while abroad through learning from stories on different experiences. The methods of data collection that the nurses will use include interview transcripts, journal records, and field notes.
Ethnography research method involves trying to comprehend how people live their lives (Naples, 2013). It consists of visiting people where they live and spending time with them to learn their way of life. Ethnography is a qualitative research method. The nurse researches will use observation to collect data that will aid them to become culturally competent.
From the research findings, the cultural competence study has a direct impact on nursing education. Nurses are challenged by this study to be innovative and creative in handling and communicating with patients from different backgrounds. The nurse educators also are enhanced to promote cultural competence and incorporate the same to students with the intention of preparing graduates who to understand cognitive and psychomotor skills of patients. The study abroad will be useful since it will engage exercises that will help in mitigating the gap between cultural and clinical practices. All the students and nurses who will take part in this study will not be culturally competent. Also, they will experience a break from class confinement by going into the field to collect data. It is vital for the nurse to understand the cultural practices of the patients. It will help to provide proficient skills in handling of patients using the appropriate measures.
Bohman, D., & Borglin, G. (2014). Student exchange for nursing students: Does it raise cultural awareness’? A descriptive, qualitative study. Nurse Education in Practice, 14(2014), 259-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2013.11.006
Carpenter, L., & Garcia, A. (2012). Assessing outcomes of a study abroad course for nursing students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33(2), 85-89. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.ju.edu:2048/login?url=http://searh.proquest.com/docview/1009642645?accountid=28468
Easterby, L., Siebert, B., Woodfield, C., Holloway, K., Gilbert, P., Zoucha, R., & Turk, M. (2012). A transcultural immersion experience: Implications for nursing practice. Association of Black Nursing Faculty, 23(4), 81-84. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=04a8efc9-a9de-4b27-b2c6-02b476a4f454%40sessionmgr4005&hid=4102&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=108110157&db=c8h
Kulbok, P., Mitchell, E., Glick, D., & Greiner, D. (2012). International experiences in nursing education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 9(1). http://dx.doi.org/101515/1548-923x.2365
Ma, J., Zhu, Y., Nan, E., & Yu, Q. (2012). On innovation of teacher education practice model from the view of service learning. Procedia Engineering, 29(2012), 3542-3546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.527
Naples, N. A. (2013). Feminism and method: Ethnography, discourse analysis, and activist research. Routledge.
Narrative Research – Analysis of Qualitative Data – Design & Method. Retrieved from https://atlasti.com/narrative-research/