An experimental research is one whereby the researcher manipulates the various variables
believed to be affecting a given hypothesis or study topic to establish some facts on the
relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variables in the study.
Experimental research helps to predict a given phenomenon that can be used to improve people’s
lifestyle. In the past, an experimental research was conducted in two secondary schools in the
city of Palu, Indonesia on bullying in schools.
Experimental Research Design
There are several designs of experimental research, in this study on bullying the
researcher used the post-test-only design. The researcher in this study divided the subjects of
study into two groups that are the experimental group and the control group. This study was
using the secondary school students as the subjects. Bullying means harassing or mistreating
someone who in some way are not in a position to defend themselves. The researcher has
indicated in the report that the students were grouped differently depending on the gender and
the different levels of their study to know who was more prone to bullying and establish the
causes of the condition.
Sampling Strategy Used in the Study
This study used students from two schools in the city; the subject was categorized into
two as mentioned on the research design, so the sampling method that was used in this case was
random sampling method. This strategy enabled the subjects of the study to have equal chances
to be studied. The researcher, first of all, established the group that was being identified more as
bullies and as the sample was taken and was established that boys made the majority of bullies as
compared to the female counterparts.
Research Design and Statistical Analysis
This study employed qualitative research design to answer the research question which
was mainly to establish what encouraged bullying among students in schools. The primary
methods of qualitative design that were employed in this study were interviews and focus
groups. The students were put in groups in line with the experimental research that is the control
group and the experimental group. The students who were more likely to be bullied were the new
ones and those who appeared to be in some way small bodied. According to the information that
was provided by the subjects in the interviews and the focus groups. Qualitative design was more
appropriate mainly because of the data collection methods that are normally used in the study
using interviews and focus groups. These methods provided an excellent way of collecting the
data because of the manner in which the respondent was being positioned through the interviews
and the focus groups. This study addressed a very crucial issue affecting the subject, and it was
too sensitive to the point that some individuals would have had some fear.
When carrying out an experimental research study, it usually is vital to carry out some
statistical analysis on the information that has been provided to establish whether there is an
element of the relationship between the variables. The researcher used descriptive statistics to
analyze the data that came from the study because this study was merely meant to provide simple
sample measure. “There were also some steps that were actually used to bring some correlations
between the observed variables in the study” (Düğenci, Haktanir & Altun, 2015).
Study Results and Conclusion
The study found from the interviews that some students had been victims of bullying and
quite a number also agreed that they at some point bullied their fellow students. It also showed
that bullying differed from one level to another and that the percentage of girls who were bullied
was relatively higher than that of boys. The researcher made several conclusions that the teachers
did not consider bullying a very serious offense in Indonesia because of how they handled the
Threats to validity in the study
Validity is the degree to which a study accurately assesses the concept the researcher
wanted to establish or attempting to measure. There usually are cases where this accuracy may
be threatened by some processes or events in the study. The first threat that would be anticipated
in this study is maturation; this has to do with the changes in variable due to normal or
developmental processes this is mainly a one group design.
Statistical regression, this is usually an effect that occurs on the outcomes of a tendency
for subjects. Whenever the dependent variables are not accurately valid, then there is some
tendency of some extreme scores to regress towards the mean. Validity is normally questionable
when the results give data that are extreme towards the mean.
The researcher was very keen on ensuring that these threats on validity were addressed
accordingly. On the issue of maturation, the researcher made sure that the variables that were
under study were only exposed or instead directed to the respective independent variables. In this
case, the study was on bullying and victimization among the students, so the researcher made
sure that they only focused on the issues affecting these particular dependent variables. The
researcher also worked on the sample randomization strategy to ensure that there were no cases
of sample bias. Sample bias is another crucial factor that affects the validity of a research study.
The researchers in this study applied several ethical principles in the research, and the
first one was informed consent principle. This principle usually helps the researcher to put the
respondents in some position to enable them to have full knowledge on the study. The research
was dealing with the students, and the issue was so critical to them that was bullied, they were
utterly made aware of how this study was conducted.
There was also the principle of confidentiality; this principle ensures the privacy of the
respondent’s protection. “The students who are providing information in this research were
assured that the information they provided in this study was going to be treated with the highest
confidentiality possible so they could be confident when giving the information for the study”
(Dechenaux, Kovenock & Sheremeta, 2015).
Dechenaux, E., Kovenock, D., & Sheremeta, R. M. (2015). A survey of experimental research on contests,
all-pay auctions, and tournaments. Experimental Economics, 18(4), 609-669.
Düğenci, O., Haktanir, T., & Altun, F. (2015). Experimental research for the effect of high temperature on
the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 75,
General Assembly of the World Medical Association. (2014). World Medical Association Declaration of
Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. The Journal of the American
College of Dentists, 81(3), 14.