Research Paper

Research Paper

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HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

JUNE 2015

Foreword

Our Nation’s founders created a republic in which citizens of character work together to

establish justice, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote

the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty. As a result of their vision,

decisions, and actions our Nation is a model of freedom and democracy throughout the

world.

Protection of our way of life requires constant vigilance. Each generation inherits not

only the rights and privileges of being an American, but also the responsibility to defend

the Constitution, against all enemies, foreign and domestic. Since 1775, our Army’s

vital, enduring role has been to fight and win our Nation’s wars.

By design, our Army has a dual nature. It is both a military department of government

and a military profession. Both are essential to accomplish the mission. However, it is

the Army Profession that forges the special bond of Trust and confidence with the

American people.

The Army Profession is defined by its essential characteristics: Trust, Honorable Service,

Military Expertise, Stewardship, and Esprit de Corps. The members of the Army

Profession, Soldiers and Army Civilians, create and strengthen the Army culture of

Trust.

We pursue a noble calling and contribute Honorable Service as a partner within the joint

community and other government services that dedicate themselves to defending the

Nation. At the same time, we are citizens whose Character, Competence, and

Commitment exemplify the ideals espoused by the Army Ethic. In living by and

upholding the Army Ethic, we are Trusted Army Professionals.

Raymond T. Odierno John M. McHugh

General, U.S. Army Secretary of the Army

Chief of Staff

*ADRP 1

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes ADRP 1, The Army Profession, dated 14 June 2013.

i

Army Doctrine Reference Publication

No. 1

Headquarters

Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 14 June 2015

The Army Profession

Contents

Page

PREFACE ………………………………………………………………………………………………… v

INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………….. vii

Chapter 1 THE UNITED STATES ARMY PROFESSION …………………………………………… 1-1 The United States Army—A Noble Calling, a Trusted Profession …………………. 1-1 Characteristics of the Army Profession …………………………………………………….. 1-3 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-5

Chapter 2 THE ARMY ETHIC ………………………………………………………………………………… 2-1 The Nature of the Army Ethic ………………………………………………………………….. 2-1 Our Shared Identity—Trusted Army Professionals ……………………………………… 2-4 Expectations for Army Professionals, Based on our Ethic …………………………… 2-9 Expectations for the Army Profession, Based on our Ethic ………………………… 2-10

Chapter 3 TRUST—THE BEDROCK OF OUR PROFESSION …………………………………… 3-1 Trust…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-1 Trust and Army Leadership …………………………………………………………………….. 3-3 Source of Trust: Adherence to the Army Ethic …………………………………………… 3-4

Chapter 4 HONORABLE SERVICE—OUR NOBLE CALLING …………………………………… 4-1 Honorable Service …………………………………………………………………………………. 4-1 Honorable Service, Civilian Authority, and our Constitutional Oaths ……………… 4-2

Chapter 5 MILITARY EXPERTISE—OUR APPLICATION OF LANDPOWER ……………… 5-1 Military Expertise……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1 Our First Task—Develop Expert Knowledge ……………………………………………… 5-1 Our Second Task—Apply Military Expertise ………………………………………………. 5-2 Our Third Task—Certify Army Professionals……………………………………………… 5-2

Chapter 6 STEWARDSHIP OF THE ARMY PROFESSION ……………………………………….. 6-1 Caring for the Army Profession—Now and for the Future ……………………………. 6-1 Our Office as Accountable Stewards ………………………………………………………… 6-2

Contents

ii ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Army Leaders as Stewards ……………………………………………………………………… 6-2 Civil-Military Relations …………………………………………………………………………….. 6-3 Stewardship during Transitions ………………………………………………………………… 6-4

Chapter 7 ESPRIT DE CORPS—OUR WINNING SPIRIT ………………………………………….. 7-1 A Winning Spirit ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7-1 Grounded in Traditions and History…………………………………………………………… 7-2 Built on a Foundation of Discipline and Standards………………………………………. 7-2 Esprit de Corps Throughout the Army Profession……………………………………….. 7-3

Appendix A THE ARMY CULTURE AND THE ARMY ETHIC ………………………………………. A-1

Appendix B OATHS, CREEDS, AND NORMS OF CONDUCT …………………………………….. B-1

SOURCE NOTES ……………………………………………………………….. Source Notes-1

GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………….Glossary-1

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………. References-1

Figures

Introductory figure 1. Underlying logic of the Army Profession and Army Ethic …………………… vi

Figure 1-1. Trusted Army professionals ……………………………………………………………………… 1-2

Figure 1-2. The foundation of trust and essential characteristics of the Army Profession …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1-4

Figure 2-1. The Army’s seal with motto: This We’ll Defend …………………………………………… 2-1

Figure 2-2. Our Army heritage…………………………………………………………………………………… 2-4

Figure 2-3. Honorable servants of the Nation ……………………………………………………………… 2-5

Figure 2-4. The Army Ethic—our shared identity and moral principles ……………………………. 2-6

Figure 2-5. Our shared identity ………………………………………………………………………………… 2-10

Figure 3-1. Trust with the American people ………………………………………………………………… 3-1

Figure 3-2. Trust between Soldiers ……………………………………………………………………………. 3-2

Figure 3-3. Trust—the bedrock of our profession ………………………………………………………… 3-3

Figure 4-1. Honorable service …………………………………………………………………………………… 4-1

Figure 5-1. Develop expert knowledge and apply military expertise ……………………………….. 5-2

Figure 5-2. Change of command ………………………………………………………………………………. 5-3

Figure 5-3. Army professional certification process ……………………………………………………… 5-4

Figure 5-4. Membership in the Army Profession ………………………………………………………….. 5-5

Figure 6-1. Stewardship of the Army Profession ………………………………………………………….. 6-1

Figure 6-2. Civil-military relations ………………………………………………………………………………. 6-3

Figure 7-1. Develop a winning spirit …………………………………………………………………………… 7-1

Figure 7-2. Grounded in traditions and history …………………………………………………………….. 7-3

Figure B-1. Oath of enlistment ………………………………………………………………………………….. B-1

Figure B-2. Civilian oath of office ………………………………………………………………………………. B-3

Contents

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 iii

Tables

Introductory table-1. New and modified Army terms………………………………………………………. viii

Table 2-1. The legal and moral framework of the Army Ethic ………………………………………… 2-3

 

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14 June 2015 ADRP 1 v

Preface

ADRP 1, The Army Profession, augments ADP 1, The Army. This ADRP defines and describes the Army

Profession and the Army Ethic. It expands the discussion on the Army’s dual nature as a military department of

the United States Government and, more importantly, a military profession. It identifies two mutually supportive

communities of practice: the Profession of Arms (Soldiers) and the Army Civilian Corps (Army Civilians). It

identifies the essential characteristics that define the Army as a profession: trust, honorable service, military

expertise, stewardship, and esprit de corps. It discusses the certification criteria for Army professionals in

character, competence, and commitment. It describes the Army culture of trust and its inherent relationship with

the Army Ethic, the heart of the Army Profession, inspiring and motivating our shared identity as trusted Army

professionals.

The principal audience for ADRP 1 is all members of the Army Profession. Commanders and staffs of Army

headquarters serving as joint task force or multinational headquarters should also refer to applicable joint or

multinational doctrine concerning the range of military operations and joint or multinational forces. Trainers and

educators throughout the Army will also use this publication. This publication provides the foundation for Army

training and education curricula on the Army Profession, the Army Ethic, and character development of Army

professionals.

Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable United States,

international, and, in some cases, host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure their

Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement. (See FM 27-10.)

This publication contains copyrighted material.

Terms for which ADRP 1 is the proponent publication (the authority) are italicized in the text and are marked

with an asterisk (*) in the glossary. Terms and definitions for which ADRP 1 is the proponent publication are

boldfaced in the text.

ADRP 1 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, United

States Army Reserve, and the Army Civilian Corps unless otherwise stated.

The proponent of ADRP 1 is the United States Army Combined Arms Center. The preparing agency is the

Center for the Army Profession and Ethic (CAPE), United States Army Combined Arms Center. Send comments

and recommendations on a DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to

Commander, United States Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, ATTN: ATZL-MCD

(ADRP 1), 300 McPherson Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2337; by e-mail to

usarmy.leavenworth.mccoe.mbx.cadd-org-mailbox@mail.mil; or submit an electronic DA Form 2028.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The copyright owners listed here have granted permission to reproduce material from their works. The

Source Notes lists other sources of quotations and photographs.

Photo of “Little Girl” (Major Mark Bieger) © Michael Yon 2005 from http://www.michaelyon-

online.com/little-girl.htm courtesy of Michael Yon.

Photo of trusted Army professionals. © AUSA Meeting Photo Galleries 2015.

Washington’s Crossing by David Hackett Fischer. Copyright © 2004. Reprinted by permission of

Oxford University Press, USA. All rights reserved.

vi ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Introductory figure 1. Underlying logic of the Army Profession and Army Ethic

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 vii

Introduction

As trusted Army professionals—Soldiers and Army Civilians—we are honorable servants of the Nation,

Army experts, and faithful stewards of the people, other resources, and profession entrusted to our care. By

our oath, we are morally committed to support and defend the Constitution. This duty requires a foundation

of trust with the American people, reinforced as the Army Profession contributes honorable service, military

expertise, and stewardship with courageous esprit de corps. Within the Army Profession, Army

professionals earn and sustain trust by demonstrating character, competence, and commitment. We make

right decisions and take right actions that are ethical, effective, and efficient.

This update to ADRP 1, The Army Profession, includes the expression of the Army Ethic in Chapter 2.

ADRP 1 contains seven chapters and two appendixes.

Chapter 1 discusses the nature of professions, explains why the Army is a profession, and introduces the

essential characteristics of the Army Profession (trust, honorable service, military expertise, stewardship

and esprit de corps).

Chapter 2 provides the doctrine on the Army Ethic, including our shared identity as Trusted Army

Professionals and our supporting roles as honorable servants, Army experts, and stewards of the Army

Profession. The chapter includes discussion of the moral-principles that guide our decisions and actions in

conduct of the mission, performance of duty, and all aspects of life.

Chapter 3 describes trust as the foundation of our relationship with the American people who rely on the

Army to ethically, effectively, and efficiently serve the Nation. Within the Army Profession, trust is the

organizing principle that supports cohesive teamwork. The Army Profession develops Soldiers and Army

Civilians to exercise mission command in honorable service in defense of the Nation.

Chapter 4 discusses honorable service, an essential characteristic of the Army Profession, as support and

defense of the Constitution, the American people, and the national interest in a manner consistent with the

Army Ethic.

Chapter 5 describes military expertise as an essential characteristic that provides ethical design,

generation, support, and application of landpower, primarily in unified land operations, and all supporting

capabilities essential to accomplish the mission, in the right way, in defense of the American people.

Chapter 6 recognizes that stewardship, an essential characteristic, is the responsibility of Army

Professionals to strengthen the Army as a profession and to care for the people and resources entrusted to us

by the American people. Stewardship provides for the long-term readiness and resilience of our people and

organizations.

Chapter 7 provides a discussion of esprit de corps, an essential characteristic of our profession that denotes

our collective ethos of camaraderie within cohesive teams. Esprit de corps is embedded in the Army culture

of trust and is carried on through customs, courtesies, and traditions.

Appendix A expands on the discussion of the Army culture.

Appendix B restates the oaths, creeds, and norms of conduct.

Introductory table-1 on page viii identifies new and modified terms.

Introduction

viii ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Introductory table-1. New and modified Army terms

Term Remarks

Army Civilian Corps Modifies the definition

Army Ethic Modifies the definition

Army Profession Modifies the definition

Army professional Modifies the definition

certification Modifies the definition

character Modifies the definition

commitment Modifies the definition

competence Modifies the definition

esprit de corps New definition

external trust New definition

honorable service New definition

internal trust New definition

military expertise Modifies the definition

Profession of Arms Modifies the definition

stewardship Modifies the definition

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 1-1

Chapter 1

The United States Army Profession

[We will] foster continued commitment to the Army Profession, a noble and selfless

calling founded on the bedrock of trust.

Chief of Staff of the Army General Raymond T. Odierno

THE UNITED STATES ARMY—A NOBLE CALLING, A TRUSTED

PROFESSION

1-1. The Chief of Staff of the Army has charged all Army professionals to continue their commitment to

maintaining the Army as a military profession. Soldiers and Army Civilians are Army professionals,

certified by the profession, and bonded with comrades through shared identity, serving within our culture of

trust. Army professionals are stewards of the Army Profession, living by and upholding the moral principles

of the Army Ethic. As we enter a period of strategic transition, it is our responsibility to strengthen the

Army Profession.

WHAT IT MEANS TO BE A PROFESSION—WHAT IT MEANS TO BE A PROFESSIONAL

1-2. A profession is a trusted, disciplined, and relatively autonomous vocation whose members—

 Provide a unique and vital service to society, without which it could not flourish.

 Provide this service by developing and applying expert knowledge.

 Earn the trust of society through ethical, effective, and efficient practice.

 Establish and uphold the discipline and standards of their art and science, including the

responsibility for professional development and certification.

 Are granted significant autonomy and discretion in the practice of their profession on behalf of

society.

1-3. The service provided by professions is vital to the society that establishes them. Furthermore, such

work is beyond the ability of the members of society to perform for themselves. Professionals continuously

develop expertise and use that expertise in the best interests of the society served. The military profession,

in particular, must provide the security—the common defense—which a society cannot provide for itself but

without which the society cannot survive.

1-4. Unlike bureaucracies, understood in the purest sense, professions create and work with expert

knowledge. It is not merely routine or repetitive work; a professional’s expertise is typically applied within

new, often unexpected situations. Professionals require years of study and practice. They normally start at

an entry level and develop the art and science of their practice by study and experience; usually there is no

lateral entry. Examples of traditional professions include medicine, theology, law, and the military.

1-5. Professions earn and maintain the trust of society through ethical, effective, and efficient application

of their expertise on society’s behalf. The profession’s ethic establishes the moral principles that guide the

application of service on behalf of society. If a profession violates its ethic and loses trust with the society it

serves, it becomes subject to increased oversight and control.

1-6. Professions self-regulate and guide the actions of their members and the quality of their work in

accordance with the profession’s ethic. A professional ethic reflects laws, values, and beliefs deeply

embedded within the profession’s culture. The professional ethic binds individual members together in a

common moral purpose to do the right thing for the right reason in the right way. The professional ethic sets

the conditions to establish and maintain a meritocratic culture. It provides standards, accepted and upheld

Chapter 1

1-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

by all members, to sustain trust with society through the proper practice of their art. Ensuring that the ethic

is upheld is a necessity for any profession. This is of special importance for the military profession given the

lethality inherent in its expertise.

1-7. A profession’s ethic also serves to inspire and motivate members of the profession. Professions

emphasize intrinsic rewards to foster commitment among their professionals—the lifelong pursuit of expert

knowledge, certification in honorable work, camaraderie with fellow professionals, and the status of

membership in a time-honored and respected vocation. Professionals are intrinsically motivated by the

value of the service they render to society. Thus, a profession is far more than a job; it is a calling—a way

of life.

1-8. Based on trust between the profession and the society it serves, professionals are granted autonomy (a

high degree of discretion). The professional must routinely make discretionary judgments and take

appropriate action. Think of a surgeon performing surgery in an operating room, a military leader

conducting security operations in a combat zone, or a civilian scientist doing research in an Army

laboratory. All have trained for years, all are surrounded by technology, and all, as individual professionals,

are granted autonomy to make right decisions and take right actions to contribute their service, honorably.

THE UNITED STATES ARMY AS A MILITARY PROFESSION

1-9. The trust we have earned and continuously reinforce is essential for the autonomy granted by our

society and our government, permitting us to exercise discretion in fulfilling our role within the defense

community. The ethical, effective, and efficient accomplishment of our mission depends on the freedom to

exercise disciplined initiative under mission command. See figure 1-1.

© AUSA Meeting Photo Galleries 2015

Figure 1-1. Trusted Army professionals

1-10. The Army Profession is a unique vocation of experts certified in the ethical design, generation, support, and application of landpower, serving under civilian authority and entrusted to defend the

Constitution and the rights and interests of the American people.

1-11. An Army professional is a Soldier or Army Civilian who meets the Army Profession’s certification criteria in character, competence, and commitment.

1-12. The Army Ethic is the evolving set of laws, values, and beliefs, embedded within the Army culture of trust that motivates and guides the conduct of Army professionals bound together in

common moral purpose.

The United States Army Profession

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 1-3

1-13. The Nation tasks the Army to do many things besides combat operations, but ultimately, as ADP 1

states, the primary reason the Army exists is to fight and win our Nation’s wars through prompt and

sustained land combat, as part of the joint force. The Army must always be prepared to accomplish this

mission. Army professionals understand and accept they may give their lives and justly take the lives of

others to accomplish the mission. The moral implications of this realization are great and compel us to be

clear in our understanding of what it means to be an Army professional.

1-14. Like other professions, the Army provides for the American people what they cannot provide for

themselves: security and defense through the conduct of unified land operations with the other Services.

The Army Profession provides the United States with the landpower to prevent, shape, and win in the land

domain.

1-15. The American people, through civilian authorities, grant us the autonomy to use lethal force on their

behalf because we have earned their trust. Thus, the Army cannot simply declare itself to be a profession;

the American people determine whether the Army is serving them as a trusted military profession. They will

continue to regard the Army as a profession based on our ethical, effective, and efficient application of

landpower. As long as the American people trust Army professionals to provide for their common defense,

they will grant us the autonomy we need to accomplish our mission in the right way.

1-16. The Army, like other professions, inspires and motivates its members to make right decisions and

take right action according to the moral principles of its ethic. The Uniform Code of Military Justice, Army

regulations, and policies set the minimum standards for ethical conduct. Right decisions and actions are an

expectation based on the moral principles of the Army Ethic. The specific application of the moral

principles of our ethic evolve with changes in the practice of warfare and our societal norms, but the moral

principles are timeless and reflect American values as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and

Constitution.

1-17. Simple or strict compliance with laws and regulations rarely generates a deeper understanding of why

a standard of conduct is prescribed and is considered right and good. The Army Ethic provides the moral

dimension that aids in understanding why we live by and uphold established moral principles.

1-18. The Army Ethic inspires an indispensable motivating spirit for those who commit to it. This is the

ethos of the Army Ethic. Today, the Army is highly trusted by the American people. This has not always

been the case, and there is no guarantee that the Army will maintain its status as a trusted military

profession. In fact, in the modern sense at least, the Army has not always been widely acknowledged as a

military profession.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMY PROFESSION

1-19. Our Army has a dual nature—it is both a military department and a military profession. America’s

Army was founded on 14 June 1775. Under the Constitution enacted in 1789, it became a military

department of the federal government and a hierarchical organization.

1-20. In earlier times, the status of the Army was not as high. During the War of 1812, some Army generals

performed quite poorly. During the Civil War, the Union Army developed its combat leadership through

“on the job training.” The poor readiness of Army units mobilized for the Spanish-American War led to

many reforms in the early 20th century, and generations of visionary Army leaders transformed the Army

into the modern profession of which we are members today.

1-21. The first cohort to be recognized as “professional” was the Commissioned Officer Corps. It

developed a codified body of expert military knowledge in land warfare doctrine, instituted formal

programs of career-long military education in professional schools, and cultivated a unique military culture

grounded in the Army Ethic of honorable service to the Nation. Following the war in Vietnam, the all-

volunteer Army began thorough professional development of all uniformed cohorts. As such, the Warrant

Officer Corps and the Noncommissioned Officer Corps also became professional in nature, and bonds of

trust between the Army and the American people were strengthened.

Chapter 1

1-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

1-22. ADP 1 affirms:

The all-volunteer force is our greatest strategic asset, providing depth, versatility, and

unmatched experience to the joint force. As the Army continues to train, develop, and

retain adaptive leaders, it maintains a combat-seasoned, all-volunteer force of

professionals. The upcoming challenge is not just attracting and selecting the best

available candidates to be Army professionals but developing them to be as good as or

better than our current professionals. During the last decade of war, commanders have

given young leaders unprecedented flexibility and authority to operate effectively on the

battlefield. The Army will continue to build on this foundation as leaders train the force

for future missions by inculcating mission command in all training. Obviously, the Army

needs to retain high-quality combat-experienced leaders so that they, in turn, train the

next generation of Army professionals.

1-23. As a military profession, our relationship with the American people is built on a foundation of trust,

continuously reinforced as we contribute honorable service, demonstrate military expertise, provide faithful

stewardship, and exhibit courageous esprit de corps. Figure 1-2 illustrates the Army Professions’ essential

characteristics. The Army Profession reinforces trust with the American people by demonstrating its

essential characteristics in everything it does, every day, and in every setting where it serves.

Figure 1-2. The foundation of trust and essential characteristics of the Army Profession

TRUST

1-24. The American people place special trust and confidence in the Army as a profession that considers

honorable service to the Nation its highest priority. Trust is the bedrock of the Army’s relationship with the

American people. Our professional responsibility is to preserve this earned trust. Within the Army

Profession, mutual trust is the organizing principle necessary to build cohesive teams. The Army’s ability to

fulfill its strategic role and discharge its responsibilities to the Nation depends on—

 Trust between Soldiers.

 Trust between Soldiers and Leaders.

 Trust between Soldiers and Army Civilians.

 Trust among Soldiers, their Families, and the Army.

 Trust between the Army and the American people.

The United States Army Profession

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 1-5

HONORABLE SERVICE

1-25. The Army exists as a profession for one reason: to serve the Nation by supporting and defending the

Constitution in a way that upholds the rights and interests of the American people. This is the basis for the

Army Ethic, which is the heart of the Army Profession. The Army Ethic defines what it means to serve

honorably. Our professional responsibility is to daily contribute honorable service, living by and upholding

the Army Ethic in the conduct of our mission, performance of duty, and all aspects of life.

MILITARY EXPERTISE

1-26. As a profession, our military expertise is the ethical design, generation, support, and application of

landpower. This is how the Army contributes honorable service in defense of the Nation. Our professional

responsibility is to continually advance our expert knowledge and skills in landpower and to certify Army

professionals. To sustain our expertise, the necessity of lifelong learning is accepted by all Army

professionals.

STEWARDSHIP OF THE PROFESSION

1-27. Stewardship is our duty to care for the people, other resources, and the profession entrusted to us by

the American people. Our decisions and actions must be right, both for today and for tomorrow. All Army

professionals have the duty to be faithful, responsible, and accountable stewards, advancing the Army

Profession, strengthening the Army culture of trust, and conveying the legacy we inherited from those who

led the way. Senior leaders, the Army’s senior stewards, have a special responsibility to ensure the present

and future effectiveness of the Army.

ESPRIT DE CORPS

1-28. To persevere and win in war and to prevail through adversity across the range of military operations

requires spirited, dedicated professionals bound together in a common moral purpose to honorably serve the

Nation. The Army Profession has a deep respect for its history and traditions and strives to achieve

standards of individual and collective excellence. Army professionals are a cohesive team where mutual

trust is reinforced through shared professional identity—living by and upholding the Army Ethic. This

collective commitment fortifies esprit de corps.

SUMMARY

1-29. The essential characteristics—trust, honorable service, military expertise, stewardship, and esprit de

corps—identify and establish the Army as a military profession. Consistently demonstrated, the

characteristics of the Army Profession reflect American values, the Army Ethic, and our approach to

accomplishing our mission in support and defense of the Constitution.

1-30. The Army Ethic is inherent within the Army culture of trust. It is manifest as the Army demonstrates

its essential characteristics. It motivates and guides Army professionals within mission command, in the

conduct of every operation, in performance of duty, and in all aspects of life. The Army Ethic is the heart of

the Army.

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14 June 2015 ADRP 1 2-1

Chapter 2

The Army Ethic

The Army Ethic has to be one shared professional ethic that informs and inspires all

members of the Army Profession—both uniformed and Civilian—to motivate and guide

decisions and actions to be trusted Army Professionals. … As Stewards of the Army

Profession, senior leaders have the responsibility for embracing the Army Ethic and

taking it to their organizations as an on-going conversation within the profession to

support and preserve the greatest land force ever fielded.

John M. McHugh, Secretary of the Army

THE NATURE OF THE ARMY ETHIC

2-1. The Army Ethic is the heart of the Army and the inspiration for our shared professional identity—

Who We Are – Why and How We Serve. It motivates our conduct as Army professionals, Soldiers and Army

Civilians, who are bound together in common moral purpose to support and defend the Constitution and the

American people. Figure 2-1 illustrates the Army’s seal.

Figure 2-1. The Army’s seal with motto: This We’ll Defend

2-2. The Army Ethic explains the nature of honorable service in accomplishment of the mission and

performance of duty. It guides the Army Profession in the ethical design, generation, support, and

application of landpower. It establishes the standard and expectation for all to serve as stewards of the

Army Profession. It is expressed in our moral principles, Army Values, oaths and creeds, laws and

regulations, and customs, courtesies, and traditions—all embedded within the Army culture of trust. See

appendix A for a discussion of Army culture. See appendix B for a discussion of oaths, creeds, and norms

of conduct.

Chapter 2

2-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

IMPORTANCE OF THE ARMY ETHIC

2-3. A doctrinal ethic is critical for the Army Profession. It provides the moral basis for why our Army

exists. It emphasizes the imperative of being an honorable leader, follower, and steward of trust with the

American people.

2-4. Within the Army Profession, we earn and reinforce trust among Soldiers, Army Civilians, and the

Army Family by living the Army Ethic and consistently demonstrating our character, competence, and

commitment.

2-5. As volunteer Soldiers and Army Civilians, we reflect our diverse society. This is our strength. At the

same time, trust requires that all of us live by and uphold common, fundamental moral principles.

Stewardship includes the duty to develop character by educating, training, and inspiring all who serve to

adhere to, internalize, and uphold the Army Ethic as their own.

2-6. Rapid changes in the nature of armed conflict present ethical challenges to mission accomplishment.

These include complexity on future battlefields, particularly within the human and cyber domain. We must

anticipate the ethical challenges associated with this uncertainty and be guided by our Army Ethic.

ORIGINS OF THE ARMY ETHIC

2-7. Our Army Ethic has its origins in the philosophical heritage, theological and cultural traditions, and

the historical legacy that frame our Nation. We respect “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness,” self-

evident truths expressed in the Declaration of Independence as American values and universal rights. These

principles are enshrined in the Preamble to the Constitution and our Bill of Rights.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish

Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the

general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do

ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Preamble to the Constitution of the United States

2-8. The framework for the Army Ethic (see table 2-1) shows the rich and varied legal and moral sources

of its content; it reflects our national values and moral principles. By our oath of service, we commit

ourselves to these time-honored and enduring ideals.

2-9. The legal and regulatory foundations of the Army Ethic are found in codified documents, such as the

United States (U.S.) Constitution, the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and the U.S. Code of Federal

Regulations. Institutionally, these and other codified parts of our ethic serve to establish the mission of the

Army (ADP 1 discusses the mission of the Army). Individually, in the performance of duty, Army

professionals must meet and uphold these standards. They establish the minimum norms for ethical conduct.

Deliberate failure to meet these benchmarks violates the Army Ethic and may result in legal, regulatory, or

administrative consequences.

2-10. In addition to the legal foundations, the Army Ethic includes higher standards from its moral

foundations, such as those expressed in the Declaration of Independence. While the moral principles of the

Army Ethic are not law or regulation, they establish the expectations to which we aspire institutionally as a

profession and individually as trusted Army professionals. These are the inspirational and motivational

foundations for honorable service.

2-11. Motivated by both the legal and moral foundations of the Army Ethic, Army professionals adhere to

all applicable laws, regulations, or rules in the accomplishment of every mission, particularly in combat or

in any application of lethal force. However, situations of uncertainty occur where the rules do not provide a

clear, right course of action. In these cases, Army professionals base their decisions and actions on the

moral principles of the Army Ethic, ensuring the protection of the inalienable rights of all people. In this

way, Army professionals live by and uphold the moral foundation of the Army Ethic and reinforce the Army

culture of trust among fellow Army professionals and with the American people.

The Army Ethic

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 2-3

Table 2-1. The legal and moral framework of the Army Ethic

The Framework of the Army Ethic

Legal Foundations Moral Foundations

Army as Profession

(Laws, values, and norms for performance of collective institution)

Legal-Institutional

 The U.S. Constitution

 Titles 5, 10, 32, USC

 Treaties

 Status-of-forces agreements

 Law of war

Moral-Institutional

 The Declaration of Independence

 Just war tradition

 Trust relationships of the profession

Individual as

Professional

(Laws, values, and norms for performance

of individual professionals)

Legal-Individual

Oaths:

 Enlistment

 Commission

 Office

USC—Standards of Exemplary Conduct

UCMJ

Rules of engagement

Soldier’s Rules

Moral-Individual

Universal Norms:

 Basic rights

 Golden rule

Values, Creeds, and Mottos:

 “Duty, Honor, Country”

 NCO Creed

 Army Civilian Corps Creed

 Army Values

 The Soldier’s Creed, Warrior Ethos

NCO noncommissioned officer UCMJ Uniform Code of Military Justice

U.S. United States USC United States Code

The Army Ethic is the evolving set of laws, values, and beliefs, embedded within the Army culture of trust that motivates and guides the conduct of Army professionals bound together in common moral purpose.

OUR ARMY HERITAGE

2-12. On June 14, 1775, the Continental Congress created our Army and gave it the mission to defend what

would become the United States of America. The Revolutionary War produced a courageous response from

the American people. Following the loss of Philadelphia in 1777, the American Army under General

George Washington went into winter quarters at Valley Forge (see figure 2-2 on page 2-4). During these

desperate days, the Continental Army Soldiers were motivated and inspired by a common dream: liberty.

The price of freedom was understood and the Soldiers at Valley Forge courageously persevered.

2-13. In the Colonial Era, Americans regarded military service as a duty of citizenship. Today’s Army

professionals, Soldiers and Army Civilians, maintain that tradition. We are dedicated to the Nation’s

defense and to the moral principles and values upon which it is founded. Our shared identity proceeds from

our shared understanding of and respect for those whose legacy we celebrate. We honor this cherished

inheritance in our customs, courtesies, ceremonies, and traditions. Units and organizations preserve their

storied histories and proudly display distinctive emblems (regimental colors, crests, insignia, patches, and

mottos). The campaign streamers on the Army flag remind us of our history of honorable service to the

Nation. These symbols recall the sacrifice and preserve the bond with those who preceded us, express who

we are today, and confirm our continued calling to serve. In that tradition, as stewards of the Army

Profession, we dedicate our lives to preserve our liberty for generations to come.

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2-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Figure 2-2. Our Army heritage

In 1776, American leaders believed that it was not enough to win the war. They also had

to win in a way that was consistent with the values of their society and the principles of

their cause. … American leaders resolved that the War of Independence would be

conducted with a respect for human rights, even of the enemy.

David Hackett Fischer Washington’s Crossing

By permission of Oxford University Press, USA

OUR SHARED IDENTITY—TRUSTED ARMY PROFESSIONALS

2-14. We live by and uphold the Army Ethic, embracing our shared identity as trusted Army professionals.

As such, we assume complementary roles as honorable servants in defense of the American people (see

figure 2-3); Army experts in the conduct of our mission; and faithful stewards of our profession, our people,

and the resources entrusted to our care. We are responsible for sustaining an Army culture of trust, now and

for the future. Living by and upholding the Army Ethic strengthens—

 Honorable service through ethical, effective, and efficient accomplishment of the mission and

performance of duty.

 Military expertise in the ethical design, generation, support, and application of landpower.

 Stewardship of our people, other resources, and our profession, now and for the future.

 Esprit de corps exemplified through our winning spirit.

 Professional development in character, competence, and commitment.

 Trust among Soldiers, Army Civilians, Army Families, and with the American people.

The Army Ethic

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 2-5

Figure 2-3. Honorable servants of the Nation

OUR ROLES AND MORAL PRINCIPLES

2-15. In our role as honorable servants of the Nation, we are professionals of character. In our role as Army

experts, we are competent professionals. In our role as stewards of the Army Profession, we are committed

professionals, accountable to each other, the profession, and the American people. By taking our solemn

oath of service, we voluntarily incur an extraordinary moral obligation inherent in the shared identity to

which we aspire. Living by and upholding the Army Ethic requires that we honor these moral principles in

our decisions and actions in all aspects of life. Figure 2-4 on page 2-6 expresses the Army Ethic.

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2-6 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

The Army Ethic The Heart of the Army

The Army Ethic includes the moral principles that guide our decisions and actions as we fulfill our purpose: to support and defend the Constitution and our way of life. Living the Army Ethic is the basis for our mutual trust with each other and the American people. Today our ethic is expressed in laws, values, and shared beliefs within American and Army cultures. The Army Ethic motivates our commitment as Soldiers and Army Civilians who are bound together to accomplish the Army mission

as expressed in our historic and prophetic motto: This We’ll Defend.

Living the Army Ethic inspires our shared identity as trusted Army professionals with distinctive roles as honorable servants, Army experts, and stewards of the profession. To honor these obligations we adopt, live by, and uphold the moral principles of the Army Ethic. Beginning with our solemn oath of service as defenders of the Nation, we voluntarily incur the extraordinary moral obligation to be trusted Army professionals.

Trusted Army Professionals are

Honorable Servants of the Nation—Professionals of Character:

We serve honorably—according to the Army Ethic—under civilian authority while obeying the laws of the Nation and all legal orders; further, we reject and report illegal, unethical, or immoral orders or actions.

We take pride in honorably serving the Nation with integrity, demonstrating character in all aspects of our lives.

In war and peace, we recognize the intrinsic dignity and worth of all people, treating them with respect.

We lead by example and demonstrate courage by doing what is right despite risk, uncertainty, and fear; we candidly express our professional judgment to subordinates, peers, and superiors.

Army Experts—Competent Professionals:

We do our duty, leading and following with discipline, striving for excellence, putting the needs of others above our own, and accomplishing the mission as a team.

We accomplish the mission and understand it may demand courageously risking our lives and justly taking the lives of others.

We continuously advance the expertise of our chosen profession through life-long learning, professional development, and our certifications.

Stewards of the Army Profession—Committed Professionals:

We embrace and uphold the Army Values and standards of the profession, always accountable to each other and the American people for our decisions and actions.

We wisely use the resources entrusted to us, ensuring our Army is well led and well prepared, while caring for Soldiers, Army Civilians, and Families.

We continuously strengthen the essential characteristics of the Army Profession, reinforcing our bond of trust with each other and the American people.

Figure 2-4. The Army Ethic—our shared identity and moral principles

The Army Ethic

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 2-7

Honorable Servants of the Nation—Professionals of Character

We serve honorably—according to the Army Ethic—under civilian authority while obeying the laws

of the Nation and all legal orders; further, we reject and report illegal, unethical, or immoral orders

or actions.

2-16. We volunteer to bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution and to protect the freedoms it

defines. This is clearly articulated in our Army Value of loyalty. Allegiance is expressed in willing

obedience to the lawful orders of our elected and appointed leaders. We demonstrate true faith in leading by

example, doing our duty in taking right action to uphold the Army Ethic, rejecting orders in violation of law

or our moral principles.

We take pride in honorably serving the Nation with integrity, demonstrating character in all aspects

of our lives.

2-17. The Army Profession contributes honorable service to the American people, defending our freedom

and rights as expressed in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Our mission must be

accomplished in the right way in accordance with our Nation’s values. American values affect every aspect

of how U.S. forces fight and win. The Army Ethic guides us and the profession, always. This is

non-negotiable. We demonstrate the Army Value of integrity as we make decisions and take actions that are

consistent with the moral principles of the Army Ethic. To violate the Army Ethic is to break our sacred

bond of trust with each other and with those whom we serve. Failure to live by and uphold the Army Ethic

brings discredit on us all and may have strategic implications for the mission.

In war and peace, we recognize the intrinsic dignity and worth of all people, treating them with

respect.

2-18. As stated in the Declaration of Independence, the human rights to life, liberty, and pursuit of

happiness are inalienable and universal. Accordingly, we treat all people with respect, recognizing their

intrinsic dignity and worth, demonstrating consideration for all. Even those who threaten the rights of others

are entitled to just treatment according to law, regulations, and rules of engagement. We lead by example

and do what is right to prevent abusive treatment of others. We protect those who are threatened or suffer

disregard for their inherent dignity and worth. We do not tolerate mistreatment of people or their property.

We lead by example and demonstrate courage by doing what is right despite risk, uncertainty, and

fear; we candidly express our professional judgment to subordinates, peers, and superiors.

2-19. Leadership demands courage. Our mission, our duty, and life itself require we reject cowardice—we

accept risk, overcome adversity, and face our fears. Our desired outcome, regardless of our best efforts in

making decisions, planning, and leading, is not assured. We realize that we may be harmed in performing

our duty and accomplishing the mission. The harm we fear may be physical, emotional, or spiritual. To

carry on requires courage, an attribute of our character and an Army Value. We communicate with candor

and tact, seeking shared understanding and demonstrating courage by doing what is right despite risk,

uncertainty, and fear. A decision and action is right if it is ethical (consistent with the moral principles of the

Army Ethic), effective (likely to accomplish its purpose, accepts prudent risk), and efficient (makes

disciplined use of resources).

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2-8 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Army Experts—Competent Professionals

We do our duty, leading and following with discipline, striving for excellence, putting the needs of

others above our own, and accomplishing the mission as a team.

2-20. The Army Value of duty charges us with the responsibility to contribute our best efforts to

accomplish the mission as members of the team. In performing our duty, we make right decisions and take

right actions to the best of our ability. This does not mean that we will always succeed or avoid all mistakes.

Setbacks and error will occur in any human endeavor. We learn from experience, both good and bad,

develop in wisdom and leadership, and strive for excellence.

We accomplish the mission and understand it may demand courageously risking our lives and justly

taking the lives of others.

2-21. The Army mission includes the directive to “fight and win our Nation’s wars.” We must be equipped,

trained, and ready to engage in armed conflict. Our basic human rights, affirmed in the Declaration of

Independence and stated in law, must be defended. Our right to life includes the right and the responsibility

of self-defense. The legitimate interests of the American people, as determined by our freely elected

government, must be protected when threatened or attacked. Our missions may justly require the use of

armed force against legitimate threats, consistent with the Army Ethic. We recognize that our lives, and the

lives and well-being of others, are at risk. In the fog of war, uncertainty compromises situational

understanding. Regardless, to the best of our ability, we must make decisions and take actions that are right.

We understand there may be unanticipated, unintended consequences affecting the lives of innocent people

and their property. We do all we can to avoid these effects. We accept prudent risk and with courage we

accomplish the mission in the right way.

We continuously advance the expertise of our chosen profession through life-long learning,

professional development and our certifications.

2-22. Within the Army Profession, progressive development and certification in character, competence, and

commitment for Soldiers and Army Civilians is a continuous, life-long responsibility. Knowledge,

discipline, and leadership require education, training, experience, coaching, counseling, and mentoring.

Situational understanding requires our individual and collective wisdom and judgment, often under

demanding, chaotic circumstances, to discern what is actually so—the truth. With shared understanding and

intent, we evaluate our options, decide what is right, and work as a cohesive team to accomplish the

mission.

Stewards of the Army Profession—Committed Professionals

We embrace and uphold the Army Values and standards of the profession, always accountable to

each other and the American people for our decisions and actions.

2-23. Every Soldier and Army Civilian has the opportunity to simultaneously be a leader, follower, and

steward of the Army Profession. We are accountable to the American people to accomplish the mission in

the right way. We accept responsibility for making right decisions and taking right actions, always. We hold

others and ourselves accountable to achieve the standard, striving for excellence. All of us exemplify

lifelong commitment to defend the American people and secure the national interest by performing our duty

consistent with Army Values. We stand strong to uphold the Army Ethic and conduct ourselves in a manner

worthy of our professional status.

The Army Ethic

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 2-9

We wisely use the resources entrusted to us, ensuring our Army is well led and well prepared, while

caring for Soldiers, Army Civilians, and Families.

2-24. We are diligent and faithful guardians of the people, other resources, and the profession entrusted to

our care. The privilege to lead includes the responsibility to professionally develop our subordinates. We

teach, coach, counsel, and mentor, and willingly accept such guidance from others. We develop people and

organizations—ensuring they are properly equipped, trained, and led. We are ready for the mission today

and anticipate the challenges that lie ahead. We exercise discipline in our use of materiel, facilities, and

funds. We promote and safeguard the health and welfare of our Soldiers, Army Civilians, and their

Families.

We continuously strengthen the essential characteristics of the Army Profession, reinforcing the bond

of trust with each other and the American people.

2-25. Our Army’s history confirms that well-led, disciplined organizations, embracing shared identity and

purpose, succeed as a team. It also confirms that the Army is a military profession when it manifests its

essential characteristics: honorable service, military expertise, stewardship, and esprit de corps, which

together produce trust. While all Army professionals are stewards of the profession where they serve, our

senior stewards have special responsibilities for the developmental policies, strategies, and resources that

enable the Army’s professional status. By strengthening its essential characteristics, the Army reinforces

trust within the profession and with society.

EXPECTATIONS FOR ARMY PROFESSIONALS, BASED ON OUR

ETHIC

2-26. The Army Ethic motivates and inspires our shared identity as trusted Army professionals.

Preservation of the peace and winning the Nation’s wars is inherent to our ethos—this is Why We Serve.

The ethical, effective, and efficient accomplishment of the mission is the core of our ethos—this is How We

Serve.

2-27. We accomplish the mission as a team, Soldiers and Army Civilians, contributing our best effort,

doing what is right to the best of our ability, and always striving for excellence. Leaders set the right

example, live by and uphold the Army Ethic, establish a positive climate, and inspire the team (see

figure 2-5). While the senior leader is responsible for what the team does or fails to do, success demands

that all perform duty with discipline and to standard. In this way, leaders and followers are trusted

teammates in the exercise of mission command. The consistent demonstration of character, competence, and

commitment, with shared understanding and intent, reinforces mutual trust. Our Army’s primary role as an

element of the joint force is in the land domain. Our enduring responsibility is to equip, train, and be ready

for a wide variety of missions, as directed by the civilian and military chain of command.

2-28. Living by and upholding the Army Ethic is our life-long commitment. Reinforcing trust requires

continuous professional development. This quest is a duty consistent with our shared identity. When our

Soldiers and Army Civilians return to society as private citizens, they continue to be moral-ethical

exemplars for their Families and communities. Every veteran of honorable service and Army retiree is a

“Soldier for Life” and continues to contribute to the well-being of the United States of America.

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2-10 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

2-29. Living the Army Ethic is a commitment and an expectation. Specifically, the Army Ethic informs,

motivates, and inspires Army Professionals to—

 Seek to discover the truth, decide what is right (ethical, effective, and efficient), and demonstrate

the character, competence, and commitment to act accordingly.

 Contribute honorable service in the conduct of the mission, performance of duty, and all aspects

of life.

 Stand Strong as stewards in maintaining the Army Profession by upholding the Army Ethic—

prevent misconduct and do what is right to stop unethical practices.

Figure 2-5. Our shared identity

EXPECTATIONS FOR THE ARMY PROFESSION, BASED ON OUR

ETHIC

2-30. The Army Ethic guides institutional and operational policy and practice in the ethical design,

generation, support and application of landpower, under legitimate civilian authority, on behalf of the

American people. The relationship between the Army Profession and the American people depends on trust,

continuously reinforced through contribution of honorable service, military expertise, and stewardship. The

commitment of the Army Profession to fulfill this duty is demonstrated with indomitable esprit de corps—

winning spirit—and the ability to be always ready and resilient.

2-31. The Army Ethic and its moral principles are essential components of the Army culture of trust.

Specifically, the Army Ethic informs and guides institutional and operational policy and practice

supporting—

 Honorable service in defense of the Constitution and the interests of the American people.

 Military expertise to accomplish the mission in the right way (ethically, effectively, and

efficiently).

 Stewardship of Soldiers, Army Civilians, the Army Family, other resources, and the profession.

 Certification of Army professionals in character, competence, and commitment.

 Our shared identity as trusted Army professionals and our bond of trust with the American

people.

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 3-1

Chapter 3

Trust—The Bedrock of Our Profession

[T]rust stands out as the defining element that enabled our military to overcome

adversity and endure the demands of extended combat. … Internal trust is integral to the

chain of command. It is both inherent in and demanded amongst peers, between seniors

and subordinates. … External trust is the bond with which we connect with those we

serve, our leaders in government and the American people. It must be continually

earned. Special trust and confidence is placed in military leaders. This trust is based

upon the fact that the members of our profession remain apolitical and would never

betray the principles and intent of the Constitution, even at the risk of their own lives.

General Martin E. Dempsey, 18th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

TRUST

3-1. External trust is the confidence and faith that the American people have in the Army to serve the Nation ethically, effectively, and efficiently. It is the bedrock of our relationship with society (see

figure 3-1). General Dempsey’s quotation expresses the importance of the public’s trust in the Army

Profession. He articulates principles that hold now and for the future of the Army Profession.

Figure 3-1. Trust with the American people

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3-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

3-2. The Army Profession has been successful in sustaining the respect and trust of the American people.

However, this trust is fragile and easily damaged if we do not understand who we are, who we serve, why

we serve, and how we serve. Essential to reinforcing trust is performing our duty every day in a manner that

the American people judge to be ethical according to the beliefs and values enshrined in the Nation’s

founding documents.

3-3. Within the Army, internal trust is reliance on the character, competence, and commitment of

Army professionals to live by and uphold the Army Ethic. It serves as a vital organizing principle that

establishes the conditions necessary for mission command. Trust is earned and reinforced as Army

professionals contribute to the mission and perform their duty, seeking and communicating the truth and

acting with integrity. With trust, there is less need for detailed guidance and close supervision.

3-4. Army professionals certified by these criteria develop mutual trust within cohesive teams.

Certification evaluates and assesses an Army professional’s—

 Character: dedication and adherence to the Army Ethic, including Army Values, as

consistently and faithfully demonstrated in decisions and actions.

 Competence: demonstrated ability to successfully perform duty with discipline and to

standard.

 Commitment: resolve to contribute honorable service to the Nation and accomplish the

mission despite adversity, obstacles, and challenges.

3-5. An Army professional’s store of trust develops from demonstrated character, competence, and

commitment (see figure 3-2). Subordinates, peers, and superiors lose trust in a member of the Army

Profession whose conduct fails to meet the standards of these criteria. More important, a greater loss of trust

in the institution occurs when leadership neglects to take action to address these failures.

Figure 3-2. Trust between Soldiers

Trust—The Bedrock of Our Profession

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 3-3

TRUST AND ARMY LEADERSHIP

3-6. Army leaders, at all levels, are responsible for reinforcing the Army culture of trust and establishing a

professional organization and command climate essential for mission command. ADRP 6-0 states that

mission command is based on mutual trust and shared understanding and purpose. Operations under the

philosophy of mission command require trust up and down the chain of command and left and right between

units. Superiors trust subordinates and expect them to accomplish missions consistent with the commander’s

intent. Subordinates trust superiors to give them the freedom to accomplish the mission with disciplined

initiative.

3-7. Leaders earn the trust of their team when they lead by example and demonstrate character,

competence, and commitment. Leaders also develop mutual trust through difficult training and shared

experiences. Strong bonds of trust built through these collective experiences enable the team to overcome

challenge and adversity (see figure 3-3). Training and shared experience allow leaders to earn the trust of

subordinates and for subordinates to earn the trust of leaders.

Figure 3-3. Trust—the bedrock of our profession

3-8. Army professionals are stewards of the profession. They maintain the trust of the American people by

living and upholding the Army Ethic. They ensure all professionals abide by its moral principles as they

accomplish their mission. In the words of General Martin E. Dempsey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of

Staff:

[W]e will work on strengthening the bond of trust among those with whom we work,

among whom we support, and among those who march with us in battle. On that

foundation of trust, we will overcome any challenge that we confront in the future.

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3-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

SOURCE OF TRUST: ADHERENCE TO THE ARMY ETHIC

3-9. Since the Army Ethic is the basis for our trust in internal and external relationships, Army

professionals must understand the source of their ethic and how it guides decisions and actions. Army

professionals use lethal force in conditions of moral complexity common to unified land operations. This

requires Army professionals to adhere to the Army Ethic in the conduct of the mission, performance of

duty, and all aspects of life. The Army Ethic is an integrated and coherent whole. It may be discussed in

segments or in part for instructional purposes, but altogether it applies to what an Army professional is and

does, everywhere, always.

WHY AND HOW WE SERVE

3-10. Understanding why and how we serve the American people is a functional imperative. Army

professionals understand that their honorable service is noble and just. Otherwise, they may doubt the value

of their service or question their commitment to the Army Profession.

3-11. Adherence to the Army Ethic, a moral obligation, is a force multiplier in all operations. Leaders are

role models and must communicate and set the example for living the Army Ethic for their Soldiers and

Army Civilians. By living and upholding the Army Ethic, we strengthen the essential characteristics of the

Army Profession.

3-12. In support of the Constitution, Title 10, United States Code is the legal foundation for the Armed

Forces of the United States. Our oath to support and defend the Constitution is a moral obligation to protect

the American people and the inalienable rights expressed in the Declaration of Independence. This is the

honorable service that the Army Profession provides to the Nation.

3-13. The Army defends the security and integrity of the United States as a sovereign nation. It protects the

rights and interests of the American people by conducting military operations as directed by civilian leaders

in a manner that also respects the basic rights of others.

3-14. The Nation’s political sovereignty is a collective responsibility of the American people. As their

trusted guardians, we restrain our actions and fight with virtue, respecting the inalienable rights of all

people. If we are to maintain legitimacy as a profession while protecting the interests of the American

people, we cannot violate the rights of others when using lethal force to protect our own rights.

3-15. Important insights for all Army professionals about how and why we serve include the following:

 The collective right of the American people to independence and political sovereignty is the

moral basis for the Army mission.

 Protecting our collective right is the service the Army Profession provides for our society.

 As Army professionals, we must not violate the rights of others, or we violate our own ethic and

erode trust and legitimacy.

 The Army mission, as directed by our civilian leaders, justifies the ethical application of

landpower.

 The moral justification for the Army mission is the basis for taking the lives of others and

courageously placing our own lives at risk.

3-16. Army professionals understand that they are part of the institution that protects the Constitutional

rights of every American. Therefore, any failure to respect basic rights and adhere to the law of war

diminishes the trust of the American people and the respect of the international community. Such failure can

cause great harm to the legitimacy of our profession and our Nation.

THE ARMY ETHIC AND THE APPLICATION OF FORCE

3-17. With ongoing change in the world balance of power and rapid advances in technology, the Army

Profession’s practice of warfare continuously evolves. However, the moral principles of the Army Ethic, as

presented in the previous chapter, are timeless and enduring. The Army Ethic guides us in meeting the

challenges of present and future threats.

Trust—The Bedrock of Our Profession

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 3-5

3-18. At the strategic level, senior Army leaders address ends, ways, and means to accomplish our global

mission. Our ethic provides strategic leaders with moral guidance when considering prudent risk,

disciplined initiative, and the consequences of military operations. Tactically and operationally, Army

leaders apply legal principles to determine how their units use lethal force. The Hague and Geneva

Conventions express the legal formulation of these principles further described in Army doctrine.

3-19. The principle of military necessity requires combat forces to engage in only those acts essential to

secure a legitimate military objective. This principle justifies those measures, not forbidden by international

law, necessary to accomplish the mission.

3-20. The principle of distinction requires discrimination between lawful combatants and noncombatants.

The latter includes civilians, civilian property, prisoners of war, and wounded personnel who are unable to

resist.

3-21. The principle of proportionality states that the anticipated loss of life and damage to property

incidental to military action must not be excessive in relation to the expected military advantage.

3-22. The principle of unnecessary suffering requires military forces to avoid inflicting harm to people or

damage to property beyond that which is necessary to accomplish the mission. Tactically, this principle

imposes restraints on Soldiers involved in close combat.

3-23. These principles establish legal and moral boundaries for the use of landpower. They are the basis for

the rules of engagement and “The Soldier’s Rules.” These principles guide Army leaders as they plan and

conduct the mission and protect noncombatants and their property to the maximum extent possible.

LIVING BY AND UPHOLDING THE ARMY ETHIC

3-24. As Soldiers and Army Civilians, we join the Army Profession with personal values developed in

childhood and nurtured through years of experience. By taking our oath to support and defend the

Constitution, we agree to live by a new set of values—Army Values. These values, understood as moral

principles, are inherent within the Army Ethic. As Army professionals, we commit to embracing Army

Values, living by and upholding the moral principles of the Army Ethic. The Army Ethic guides our

decisions and actions, always. When we uphold the Army Values and live the Army Ethic, we strengthen

the Army culture of trust.

3-25. As stewards of the profession, we must lead by example and uphold the Army Ethic in all aspects of

our lives. We are accountable, and hold others accountable, to be worthy of our status as Army

professionals.

3-26. Acts of sexual harassment, sexual assault, and hazing are examples of violations of the Army Ethic.

They injure our comrades, are corrosive to the Army culture of trust, and they undermine the trust of the

American people. All members of the profession are comrades. The Warrior Ethos states, “I will never

leave a fallen comrade.” This applies both on and off the battlefield—at all times.

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14 June 2015 ADRP 1 4-1

Chapter 4

Honorable Service—Our Noble Calling

The Nation today needs [professionals] who think in terms of service to their country,

and not in terms of their country’s debt to them.

General of the Army Omar Bradley

HONORABLE SERVICE

4-1. Honorable service is support and defense of the Constitution, the American people, and the national interest in a manner consistent with the Army Ethic. Throughout history, every military has

had a distinct ethic and ethos that reflect the values and norms of the society it protected. The moral

principles of the Army Ethic encompass American values and guide our approach to warfighting.

4-2. We contribute honorable service as we accomplish our mission, perform our duty, and live our lives

in a manner worthy of our professional status. Doing so requires that we make right decisions and take right

action. This requires an understanding of what is right. A right decision and action is ethical, effective, and

efficient. In this way, living by and upholding the Army Ethic means that its moral principles are woven

through all facets of our lives. Figure 4-1 shows Major Mark Bieger carrying an injured child in Mosul,

Iraq, Staff Sergeant Ryan Pitts and the Medal of Honor, and Mr. Ernest Roth receiving the Commander’s

Award for Civilian Service.

Figure 4-1. Honorable service

4-3. As Army professionals, we accept the responsibility to continuously develop others and ourselves in

character, competence, and commitment. These attributes, consistently demonstrated, reinforce trust. Trust

is essential for the successful accomplishment of every mission and endeavor. Thus, we aspire to be trusted

Army professionals.

4-4. Conversely, misconduct undermines trust and can bring discredit on us all. Moral failure

compromises the Army Profession’s bond of trust among its members, with the American people, and with

the international community. It is our duty to set the example, to prevent misconduct, and to do what is right

to stop unethical practices.

4-5. Our identity is strengthened through education, training, and experience. We are committed to

lifelong learning and character development, offering and receiving coaching, counseling, and mentoring.

We strive for excellence in all endeavors and set the example for what it means to live by and uphold the

Army Ethic.

Chapter 4

4-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

HONORABLE SERVICE, CIVILIAN AUTHORITY, AND OUR

CONSTITUTIONAL OATHS

4-6. Honorable service to the Nation demands true faith and allegiance to the Constitution. The Oath of

Office (commissioning) for officers, the Oath of Enlistment for enlisted Soldiers, and the Oath of Office for

Army Civilians each share these words: “that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States

against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same.”

4-7. Our military responsibility is conferred by the American people, based on the principles of the

Declaration of Independence, through the Constitution, and law, such as Titles 5, 10, and 32 of the United

States Code. Military authority is delegated by elected and appointed public officials to the Soldiers and

Army Civilians entrusted with executing their orders. The Oath of Enlistment obliges obedience to the

orders of superior officers, and the Oath of Office implies the same for commissioned officers and Army

Civilians. The Army Professional’s oath requires strict adherence to the law. No order can set aside this

obligation.

4-8. The Army professional’s moral awareness and sensitivity is required for legally and morally

justifiable action. General George Washington exemplified honorable service in his resignation to Congress

at the close of the Revolutionary War. By this act, he ensured that his immense national popularity as a

military leader and hero would not overshadow the necessary exercise of power of the fledgling Congress.

Thus, the American military has long recognized and embraced a moral tradition of subordination to elected

civilian authority within honorable service to country.

Upholding the Army Ethic PFC Justin Watt’s decisions and actions demonstrate the courage that is required to do what is right despite risk, uncertainty, and fear. In March 2006 near Mahmudiyah, Iraq, four Soldiers raped a 14-year old Iraqi girl and murdered her and her family. After learning of these acts, despite imminent risk of retaliation, a member of their platoon, PFC Watt, reported the incident to his chain of command. Ultimately, all four Soldiers were tried and convicted. PFC Watt stated, “If you have the power to make something right, you should do it. Investigation is not my job. But if something went down—something terrible like that—then it’s my obligation to come forward.” His commitment to uphold the Army Ethic at the risk of his own life exemplifies honorable service.

4-9. Soldiers in combat operations balance between the necessity to obey their superiors without hesitation

and the legality and morality of using violence in the service of the Nation. The law is explicit. Soldiers are

legally bound to obey the orders of their superiors but they must disobey an unlawful order. Soldiers are

also legally bound to report violations of the law of war to their chain of command. The honorable action of

PFC Justin Watt in reporting, contrary to instructions, the misconduct at Mahmudiyah is one such example.

4-10. Often there is no time for recourse to legal advice in combat. Soldiers then act in accordance with

their training. Realistic training should expose them to potential dilemmas and leaders must emphasize the

primacy of “The Soldier’s Rules.” However, this may not be sufficient preparation for the realities of close

combat. Ethical dilemmas will occur and blind obedience is no guide to action. Thus, Soldiers inculcate the

Army Ethic through force of habit and the daily example of their leaders.

ETHICAL ORDERS

4-11. Making a right choice and acting on it when faced with an ethical question can be difficult.

Sometimes it means standing firm and disagreeing with leadership on ethical grounds. These occasions test

character. Situations in which a Soldier or Army Civilian believes an order is unlawful can be most difficult.

Honorable Service—Our Noble Calling

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 4-3

4-12. Under normal circumstances, we execute a superior’s decision with enthusiasm. If we perceive that an

order is unlawful, we should seek to gain situational understanding regarding the order and its original

intent. This may include asking for clarification from the person who issued the order before proceeding.

4-13. If the question is complex, the Soldier or Army Civilian should seek legal counsel. If circumstances

do not permit, as may happen in the heat of combat, Soldiers make the best judgment possible based on

their understanding of the Army Ethic as applied to the immediate situation. There is a risk when we

disobey what is discerned to be an unlawful order, but it may be the most courageous decision we ever

make.

4-14. While none of us can be completely prepared for complex, ambiguous situations, we should reflect on

the Army Ethic, study lessons learned, and anticipate ethical challenges. It is expected that Soldiers and

Army Civilians, as trusted Army professionals, will do what they believe is right.

4-15. By our oath of service, a public moral commitment, we voluntarily agree to live our lives, even at the

risk of injury or death, in honorable service to the American people. With this oath, we express our

willingness, as President Lincoln stated at Gettysburg, to offer our “last full measure of devotion.”

It was the honor of my life to answer the call and serve our country. … I saw the greatest

men I’ve ever known … who placed themselves between us and the enemy to protect and

defend. … They’re the real heroes and it is their names you should know: … No one man

carried the fight. We did it together. … We were a family. … The Medal represents our

sacrifices, and those of every service member.

They were professionals. They were warriors.

Staff Sergeant Ryan Pitts, USA Medal of Honor Ceremony Speech, 22 July 2014

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14 June 2015 ADRP 1 5-1

Chapter 5

Military Expertise—Our Application of Landpower

I am an expert and I am a professional.

Soldier’s Creed

MILITARY EXPERTISE

5-1. Military expertise is the ethical design, generation, support, and application of landpower, primarily in unified land operations, and all supporting capabilities essential to accomplish the

mission in defense of the American people. Soldiers and Army Civilians will find within this definition

the role their units and organizations play in ultimately applying landpower and how their own contribution

fits into the larger mission.

5-2. It takes years of study and practice to apply our military expertise in the conduct of our various

missions. The Army Profession has three critical tasks:

 Develop expert knowledge.

 Apply military expertise.

 Certify Army professionals and organizations.

OUR FIRST TASK—DEVELOP EXPERT KNOWLEDGE

5-3. The Army professional must develop expert knowledge in four fields:

 Military-technical.

 Moral-ethical.

 Political-cultural.

 Leader-human development.

5-4. The military-technical field includes knowledge and application of Army force design, force

generation, and the effective use of landpower. This field includes the integration of technology in the

conduct of military operations (see figure 5-1).

5-5. The moral-ethical field addresses knowledge and application of landpower, which is often lethal,

according to the American people’s expectations and values. This field encompasses the legal and moral

contents of the Army Ethic and their application by various methods of moral reasoning and decision

making. The moral-ethical field includes shared beliefs, rules, and standards that guide us in the conduct of

the mission, performance of duty, and all aspects of life. These are passed along from generation to

generation and apply in war and peace.

5-6. The political-cultural field includes knowledge of how Army professionals and their organizations

interact outside the Army, particularly with unified action partners and civilian populations, both foreign

and domestic, in all civil-military relations.

5-7. The leader-human development field informs how the Army Profession inspires American citizens to

volunteer and accept a calling to honorable service that develops their professional identity and certifies

them in character, competence, and commitment. Professional development for Soldiers and Army Civilians

is a career-long process that includes education, training, and experience. Lifelong learning is expected of

all Army professionals.

Chapter 5

5-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Figure 5-1. Develop expert knowledge and apply military expertise

OUR SECOND TASK—APPLY MILITARY EXPERTISE

5-8. We apply our military expertise with the autonomy granted by the American people. Soldiers and

Army Civilians must contribute their best effort to accomplish the mission. To do so requires understanding

and applying the principles of mission command as a valued member of a cohesive team—developing

mutual trust through performance of duty with discipline and to standard.

5-9. When applying military expertise, Army professionals repetitively make discretionary judgments,

often with high moral implications and consequences. Whether we are Soldiers or Army Civilians, in war or

peace, we make decisions accepting prudent risk and take action with disciplined initiative under mission

command. In all cases, we are guided by the moral principles of the Army Ethic.

5-10. As trusted Army professionals, we aspire to be Army experts making right decisions and taking right

action. However, we understand that honest mistakes and setbacks are inevitable and can be valuable

learning experiences, contributing to our professional development, collective wisdom, and leadership.

OUR THIRD TASK—CERTIFY ARMY PROFESSIONALS

Volunteers are the cornerstone of our Army. It doesn’t matter where you’re from—the

moment you volunteer, you become a part of the Army Profession … a profession that

values hard work, a willingness to learn, the capacity for growth and above all, the

courage and integrity to lead. And for this selfless service America gets in return

enriched citizens and committed leaders to forge the strength of the nation.

General Ann E. Dunwoody

Military Expertise—Our Application of Landpower

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 5-3

5-11. Certification is verification and validation of an Army professional’s character, competence, and commitment to fulfill responsibilities and successfully perform assigned duty with discipline and

to standard. The Army has significant autonomy to make decisions due to its unique military expertise and

moral obligation to serve the best interests of the Nation. For example, Congress does not normally dictate

doctrine to the Army; it trusts the Army to develop it correctly. Through certification, the Army strengthens

trust by confirming the professional development of Soldiers and Army Civilians and the readiness of

organizations.

5-12. Certification in the Army has two purposes. For the Army Profession, certification demonstrates to

the American people that the Army is qualified to perform its expert work. For Army professionals,

certification also provides motivation and a sense of accomplishment. Examples include an earned rank or

credential, selection for a leadership assignment (see figure 5-2), or successful completion of training.

Figure 5-2. Change of command

5-13. The Army Profession certifies the character, competence, and commitment of its Soldiers and Army

Civilians throughout their service. Certification methods include—

 Official promotion and evaluation systems.

 Professional training and education within Army schools, including branch, skill, and functional

area qualifications.

 Centralized certifications and assignments for leadership and command positions.

5-14. Intrinsically, character is one’s true nature including identity, sense of purpose, values, virtues,

morals, and conscience. Character, in an operational sense, is an Army professional’s dedication and

adherence to the Army Ethic, including Army Values, as consistently and faithfully demonstrated in

decisions and actions.

Chapter 5

5-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

5-15. Competence is an Army professional’s demonstrated ability to successfully perform duty with

discipline and to standard. Requisite competence varies based on level of responsibility (rank or grade) and

the duties associated with specific force structure positions within career management fields.

5-16. Commitment is an Army professional’s resolve to contribute honorable service to the Nation and

accomplish the mission despite adversity, obstacles, and challenges. To be an Army professional is to

answer a calling that is much more than a job. It means to be motivated primarily by the intrinsic value of

service rather than material benefits such as pay and vacations. At senior levels of leadership, this includes

responsible stewardship of the Army Profession. Demonstrating commitment requires the resilience to cope,

recover, and learn from setbacks.

5-17. Upon taking our initial oath, we voluntarily join the Army Profession as aspiring Army professionals.

Upon completion of the appropriate requirements, we receive our initial certification (see figure 5-3). This

is a significant first step in our development as a trusted Army professional. The responsibility for

continuing development and certification is a mutual one, shared between the individual and the Army

Profession. Army professionals undergo multiple certifications in order to assume greater responsibility or

duty requiring advanced knowledge or skills.

Figure 5-3. Army professional certification process

5-18. Army professionals who are veterans of honorable service or who have retired remain members of the

Army Profession and continue to be valued members of the Army Family. As they transition into civilian

life, they serve as exemplary role models within their communities. As a “Soldier for Life,” each man and

woman carries on the traditions of the Army culture of trust, demonstrating the Army Ethic in all aspects of

their lives.

5-19. The Army Profession does not automatically certify an Army professional. Service in the Army

Profession entails significant responsibility—the ethical design, generation, support, and application of

landpower in honorable service of the Nation. Our military expertise is not to be taken for granted.

Membership in the Army Profession is a privileged status that members earn through initial certification and

progressive re-certifications in character, competence, and commitment.

MEMBERSHIP IN THE ARMY PROFESSION

5-20. The Army Profession has two broad categories of professionals—Soldiers and Army Civilians (see

figure 5-4). These professionals comprise two complementary and mutually supporting communities within

the Army Profession:

 The Profession of Arms is a community within the Army Profession composed of Soldiers of

the Regular Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve.

 The Army Civilian Corps is a community within the Army Profession composed of civilians

serving in the Department of the Army.

Military Expertise—Our Application of Landpower

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 5-5

Figure 5-4. Membership in the Army Profession

5-21. Being an Army professional starts with developing and sustaining a professional identity. Identity

refers to one’s self-concept. Soldiers and Army Civilians first identify with being members of the Army

Profession. Their shared identity as trusted Army professionals is progressively formed and strengthened as

they live by and uphold the Army Ethic as they perform their duties and accomplish the mission.

5-22. Contractors are not members of the Army Profession; however, they provide valuable support and

augment the capabilities of the Profession of Arms and the Army Civilian Corps. Hired under contractual

terms for specific tasks of a specified duration, contractors provide essential skills and perform technical

and administrative tasks that allow Army professionals to focus on their primary missions. Contractors are

an important part of any current or future Army effort.

5-23. The progression from civilian volunteer to certified Army professional is vital to strengthening the

military expertise of the Army Profession. This is a constant challenge due to rapidly changing conditions,

advancing technology, and the variety of missions we are assigned. As such, ensuring this progression must

remain a strategic priority for senior Army leaders.

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14 June 2015 ADRP 1 6-1

Chapter 6

Stewardship of the Army Profession

A common thread runs through all that we do. … That thread is the stewardship of the

profession, of what it means to be a soldier.

Chief of Staff of the Army General Raymond T. Odierno

CARING FOR THE ARMY PROFESSION—NOW AND FOR THE

FUTURE

6-1. The essential characteristics of the Army Profession—trust, honorable service, military expertise,

stewardship, and esprit de corps—establish what General George C. Marshall described as the “common

spirit” that binds us together as a unique military profession. Together, these characteristics explain what it

means for the Army to be a profession.

6-2. As stewards of the Army Profession, it is our duty to strengthen these characteristics every day and in

everything we do (see figure 6-1). Stewardship is necessary for the Army Profession to be worthy of the

trust of the American people, now and for the future.

Figure 6-1. Stewardship of the Army Profession

Chapter 6

6-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

OUR OFFICE AS ACCOUNTABLE STEWARDS

6-3. Stewardship is the responsibility of Army professionals to strengthen the Army as a profession and to care for the people and other resources entrusted to them by the American people. Army

professionals continuously strive for excellence in the performance of duty to accomplish every mission

ethically, effectively, and efficiently. Stewardship requires that we understand our work is more than just a

job; it is an office. We accept this sense of office when sworn in under oath; this is explicit in the oaths

taken by Army officers and Army Civilians (and implied in the Oath of Enlistment). These oaths conclude

with the language: And that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office upon which I am

about to enter.

6-4. The office which Army professionals enter upon taking their oath is not a physical workspace; it is a

moral workspace. This unique workspace involves our subordination to the moral responsibilities of the

profession. Specifically, Army professionals are stewards of the sacred trust with the American people.

Accountability comes with the responsibility of office—the obligation that the Army must always be

prepared to fight and win. This is what S. L. A. Marshall described as the Army’s “exceptional and

unremitting responsibility.”

ARMY LEADERS AS STEWARDS

6-5. All true professions police their members and create their own professional development programs.

They live by their ethic and advance their expert knowledge and practical expertise, which they

continuously adapt to future needs. The Army was established by Congress in 1775, but it has only matured

into a profession since the early twentieth century. The Army Profession will continue to mature and

reinforce trust with the American people only if its senior leaders act as responsible stewards of the

institution, our people, and our resources.

6-6. Stewardship includes the group of strategies, policies, principles, and beliefs that pertain to the

purposeful creation, management, and sustainment of effective landpower. Stewards have concern for the

lasting effects of their decisions on the people and other resources entrusted to their care. Senior Army

leaders are responsible for professional development programs and improving our institutional systems for

the near- and long-term. As such, senior Army leaders—

 Oversee professional education and training activities essential to organizational learning,

including generating military expertise related to the ethical design, generation, support, and

application of landpower. They actively seek to increase the profession’s body of expert

knowledge.

 Apply expertise in leader and human development to certify individual professionals and

organizations. This process develops future leaders and ensures the effectiveness of Army

organizations.

 Perform their duty with discipline, striving for standards of excellence, contributing honorable

service, setting the example for exemplary conduct, and accomplishing the mission.

 Willingly live by and uphold the Army Ethic, without the need for external regulation, to

enhance the profession’s autonomy.

 Strengthen esprit de corps through the practice of customs, courtesies, and traditions. These

practices honor our history and promote the legacy of honorable service to the Nation.

 Inspire and motivate pursuit of excellence, a courageous winning spirit, an Army culture of trust,

and cohesive teamwork.

6-7. Senior leaders fulfill this moral obligation by investing in professional development for future leaders

at all levels. Professional development for Army leaders includes education, training, and experience. It is

the senior leader’s responsibility to ensure subordinates receive the appropriate education, training, and

experiences to compete for promotion, as well as to increase their potential and motivation for current and

future assignments.

Stewardship of the Army Profession

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 6-3

CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS

6-8. Senior Army leaders have a direct stewardship responsibility to strengthen trust with the American

people through their professional engagement in civil-military relations. Civilian authority over the military

is established and codified in our Constitution and is the mechanism by which the American people, through

their elected and appointed officials, exercise oversight of the military. Army professionals understand this

and appreciate the traditional role that such oversight has played throughout our history (see figure 6-2).

Figure 6-2. Civil-military relations

6-9. Final decisions and responsibility for national strategy and policy, and for the organization and

resourcing of the Army rest with civilian authority. With this understanding, Army professionals have a duty

to provide their unique and vital expertise to the decision making process. It is our responsibility to ensure

that professional military advice is candidly and respectfully presented to civilian leaders..

6-10. The key condition for effective American civil-military relations is mutual respect and trust. With this

understanding, Army professionals strictly adhere to a set of norms established by law and accepted

practice:

 The Army Profession’s principal obligation is to support the democratic institutions and policy-

making processes of our government. Military leaders offer their expertise and advice candidly to

appropriate civilian leadership.

 Civilian decision makers seek and consider professional military advice in the context of policy

deliberations. Army professionals properly confine their advisory role to the policy-making

process and do not engage publically in policy advocacy or dissent. Army professionals adhere to

a strict ethic of political nonpartisanship in the execution of their duty.

 The legitimacy of the Army Profession depends on healthy interaction with the news media.

Within the limits of operations security, Army professionals support and facilitate the media’s

legitimate function to inform the citizenry we honorably serve.

Chapter 6

6-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

STEWARDSHIP DURING TRANSITIONS

6-11. The Army Profession serves the Nation in the common defense, and the Constitution empowers the

Congress to raise and support the Army. As such, throughout our history, the Army has experienced

transitions in size and composition. We respond to congressional and executive directives with

consideration for the Army’s ability to accomplish the mission and for effects on our people and property.

We do this in a manner consistent with our professional status and strengthen the essential characteristics of

our profession as we achieve the new end state capabilities. We emerge, ready and resilient, always

prepared for the next mission.

6-12. Now and in the future, Army leaders will continue to inspire honorable service, develop and apply

military expertise for new generations of Army professionals, and sustain the esprit de corps that is our

winning spirit. Senior Army leaders will adjust our policies and strengthen our institutional systems to

anticipate and meet operational demands. In this way, senior stewards of the Army Profession reinforce our

sacred bond of trust with the American people.

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 7-1

Chapter 7

Esprit de Corps—Our Winning Spirit

The Soldier’s heart, the Soldier’s spirit, the Soldier’s soul are everything. Unless the

soldier’s soul sustains him he cannot be relied on and will fail himself and … his country

in the end.

General of the Army George C. Marshall

A WINNING SPIRIT

7-1. Success in all our missions requires spirited and dedicated Soldiers and Army Civilians who strive for

standards of excellence. We are bonded together through mutual trust, in cohesive teams—units and

organizations—a band of brothers and sisters (see figure 7-1). Our shared identity, sense of purpose, and

winning spirit strengthen our individual and collective commitment, resilience, and courage—a never quit

resolve—enabling us to persevere and accomplish even the most arduous mission.

7-2. Esprit de corps is a traditional military expression that denotes the Army’s common spirit, a collective ethos of camaraderie and cohesion within the team. For the Army Profession, esprit de corps

is embedded in the Army culture of trust and sustained by leaders at every level. It is often manifested in

customs, courtesies, and traditions. On every mission—whether it is engaging enemy forces, establishing

security for a lasting peace, or rebuilding a community devastated by natural disaster—esprit de corps

strengthens our commitment to persevere and accomplish the mission in the right way.

Figure 7-1. Develop a winning spirit

Chapter 7

7-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

GROUNDED IN TRADITIONS AND HISTORY

7-3. Soldiers and Army Civilians are well trained, well equipped, and ready to accomplish a variety of

missions. However, these preparations alone are not enough. The challenges of warfare—a formidable and

dangerous enemy, a hostile and uncertain environment, physical and emotional fatigue, separation from

loved ones, and attendant stresses—wear on even the most experienced Army professional. To persevere

and prevail in these conditions requires an intangible resilience that is at the core of our ethos.

Esprit de Corps During the epic World War II Battle of the Bulge, the one standing order that General Middleton gave General McAuliffe on the morning of 19 December was “Hold Bastogne.” By 22 December, artillery ammunition was running low and German forces encircled the town. There were too few medics, not enough surgical equipment to treat the wounded, and many nearly froze in the snow. Despite these bleak conditions, unit esprit and Soldier morale were still high. What may have been the biggest morale booster came with an enemy ultimatum. At about noon, four uniformed Germans under a white flag entered the lines of the 2d Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment. The terms of the message they carried were simple: “the honorable surrender of the encircled town.” This was to be accomplished in two hours on threat of annihilation by the massed fires of the German artillery. The rest of the story has become part of American military legend: General McAuliffe disdainfully answered the Germans, “Nuts!” Colonel Harper, commander of the 327th, hard pressed to translate the General’s idiom, decided on “Go to Hell!” Nonetheless, the 101st expected that the coming day would be extremely difficult, and it was—but, our Soldiers held Bastogne. The staunch defense of the town impeded the German advance and hastened the celebration of the Allies’ victory in Europe.

7-4. The Army’s culture reflects the belief that the Army has always endured and will endure again. Units

that endure have distinctively stable cultures that shape their members’ behavior, even though they are

composed of many, ever changing individuals. An institution’s culture generally reflects what it has found

to be functionally effective in times of crisis. Culture goes beyond mere style. It is the spirit and soul of the

organization, the motivational bond that makes organizations distinctive sources of identity and successful

experience (see figure 7-2).

BUILT ON A FOUNDATION OF DISCIPLINE AND STANDARDS

7-5. Discipline and standards are intrinsic within the Army culture of trust. Discipline guides our manner

of performance. We conduct ourselves according to the discipline of our military art and science. With

discipline, we choose the harder right over the easier wrong in the face of temptation, obstacles, and

adversity. Standards establish acceptable levels of performance and achievement. As a result, Army

professionals strive for standards of excellence and may take justifiable pride in their contribution of

honorable service on behalf of the American people.

7-6. Some may associate discipline only with regulations and the consequences for errors in judgment and

conduct. However, it is important to understand that our professional discipline is fundamentally about how

we practice our profession. Discipline is a hallmark of the Army and is the expected manner in which we

perform our duty, striving for standards of excellence.

Esprit de Corps—Our Winning Spirit

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 7-3

Figure 7-2. Grounded in traditions and history

ESPRIT DE CORPS THROUGHOUT THE ARMY PROFESSION

7-7. Esprit de corps exists at all levels, influencing individual morale, team cohesion, and ethos within the

Army Profession. It contributes to our sense of community—an Army Family—that cares for all its

members and will “never leave a fallen comrade.”

7-8. For the Soldier and Army Civilian, esprit de corps is reflected in—

 Motivation, discipline, and morale.

 A sense of accomplishment: “Duty Well Performed!”

 Pride in honorable service, defending the American people.

 Belonging to a cause greater than oneself: love of country, the Army Family, and preserving the

peace.

 Living by and upholding the Army Ethic, always.

7-9. Within the unit, command, and organization, esprit de corps is reflected in—

 A shared sense of professional identity, a common mission, technical and tactical proficiency,

and cohesive teamwork that develops mutual trust.

 Shared values and experiences—working and training together, respecting each other, and

mutually overcoming adversity and challenge.

 Conduct of the mission in the right way.

 A professional command climate of trust, respect, caring, and candor.

 Honoring customs, courtesies, and traditions.

Chapter 7

7-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

7-10. The Army, as a profession, contributes to esprit de corps through—

 Shared identity as America’s Army, a unique military profession, military department, and force

of decisive action.

 Sustained specialized, demanding, and intellectually rigorous education and training.

 Individual and collective certification.

 Advancement and promotion based on genuine merit.

 Shared commitment to the Army Profession, the Army Ethic, the Army mission, and our heritage

of honorable service within the Army culture of trust.

 Shared understanding of why and how we Serve the American people.

7-11. Army professionals—Soldiers and Army Civilians—have always embraced a winning spirit. The

Army Profession continuously strengthens such esprit de corps necessary for today’s mission and those that

lie ahead.

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 A-1

Appendix A

The Army Culture and the Army Ethic

ARMY CULTURE

A-1. The essential characteristics of the Army Profession—trust, honorable service, military expertise,

stewardship, and esprit de corps—and the Army Ethic are inherent within the Army culture. Our culture is

informed by and sustains the Army Ethic, the heart of the Army. Thus, our culture and ethic are integrated,

interdependent, evolving, and enduring.

A-2. All professions, major institutions, and large organizations have distinct cultures that influence

behaviors and shape the identity of their members. The culture of a people generally reflects what is

acceptable and functionally effective. Thus, culture goes beyond mere style. It is essentially how we do

things.

A-3. In contrast to culture, organizational climate refers to its members’ feelings and attitudes as they

interact within their teams. Climate is often driven by observed policies and practices, reflecting the leader’s

character. A zero-defect mindset, for example, can create conditions in which individuals believe they are

not trusted. Unlike culture, that is deeply embedded, climate can be changed quickly, for example, by

replacing a toxic leader or correcting dysfunctional practices.

ASSUMPTIONS, BELIEFS AND VALUES, AND ARTIFACTS

A-4. There are three levels within the Army culture: underlying assumptions; enduring beliefs and values;

and the artifacts and icons associated with our customs, courtesies, and traditions.

A-5. Our shared underlying assumptions are directly associated with the Army Ethic and its binding moral

principles. Consequently, the Army Ethic is integral within the Army culture, and Army professionals

willingly accept their duty to live by and uphold our ethic in all aspects of life. By way of illustration, we

assume and accept the moral principle that all people are of intrinsic dignity and worth. Accordingly, we

treat everyone with respect.

A-6. Within the Army culture, our shared professional beliefs and values are published in doctrine and are

reflected in regulations, policies, and procedures. Accordingly, the Army Ethic, with embedded Army

Values, is taught and integrated within mission command. However, if leaders allow disconnects between

word and deed—between professed values and actual practices—then they breed cynicism, compromise

mutual trust, and degrade organizational esprit de corps and individual morale. Conversely, leader actions

consistent with the Army Ethic strengthen mutual trust and build cohesive teams, supporting the philosophy

of mission command.

A-7. Artifacts and icons are what Army professionals see, hear, and feel within the Army culture. These

include—

 Language, technology, and equipment.

 Visible symbols, such as flags and unit guidons.

 Organizational history and traditions.

 Chain of command pictures, representing the hierarchy of responsibility and authority.

Appendix A

A-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

A-8. Understanding the distinct levels within Army culture—assumptions, beliefs and values, and artifacts

and icons—allows leaders to strengthen each as they provide continuous stewardship of the Army

Profession and especially as they guide the Army through transitions. In this light, leaders focus on

reinforcing—

 Our shared professional identity.

 Our sense of community and esprit de corps.

 Hierarchy, responsibility, and accountability.

A-9. Our shared professional identity as trusted Army professionals guides our decisions and actions,

inspiring us to be honorable servants, Army experts, and responsible stewards of the Army Profession. We

are committed to lifelong learning and professional development. We strive for standards of excellence in

all our endeavors. We contribute our best effort to accomplish the mission and embrace a spirit of service to

others before self.

A-10. Army culture reinforces a necessary sense of community—the Army Family. We belong to a

professional family with a shared mission, purpose, and identity. Camaraderie, in a supportive and cohesive

team of brothers and sisters, develops our shared identity by focusing on the team (“we”) and not the

individual (“me”). Cooperation and 360-degree commitment allow task-organized units, restructured

organizations, and newly assigned Soldiers and Army Civilians to work readily together with mutual trust as

cohesive teams. Army professionals put the Army’s interests ahead of their own and find intrinsic value in

honorable service.

A-11. Hierarchy is essential within the Army as a military department of government. Hierarchy reflects

levels of responsibility and authority. Within this structure, Army leaders at all levels contribute to mission

accomplishment in the right way, consistent with their superior’s intent. This willing obedience to legal and

moral orders is essential to good order and discipline within the Army culture. Within the chain of

command, mutual trust supports mission command, strengthens shared professional identity, and builds

cohesive teams.

A-12. These dimensions of Army culture—shared identity, sense of community, and hierarchy—are

mutually supporting and reinforcing. Senior Army leaders understand the interaction among these factors,

particularly during transitions, and ensure each is strengthened, contributing to a ready and resilient Army,

now and for the future.

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 B-1

Appendix B

Oaths, Creeds, and Norms of Conduct

OATHS

B-1. Army professionals swear or affirm to support and defend the Constitution of the United States—not

a leader, people, government, or territory. That solemn oath ties service in the Army directly to the founding

document of the United States. It instills a nobility of purpose within each member of the Army Profession

and provides deep personal meaning to all who serve. The Army Profession derives common standards and

a code of ethics from common moral obligations undertaken in its members’ oaths of office. These

standards unite members of all Services to defend the Constitution and protect the Nation’s interests, at

home and abroad, against all threats.

ARMY OATH OF ENLISTMENT

B-2. The Army Oath of Enlistment (see figure B-1) reads:

I, ______, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution

of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith

and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United

States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the

Uniform Code of Military Justice. So help me God.

Figure B-1. Oath of enlistment

Appendix B

B-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND WARRANT OFFICERS OATH OF OFFICE

B-3. The Army Oath of Office reads:

I, ______, having been appointed an officer in the Army of the United States, as

indicated above in the grade of _____ do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support

and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and

domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation

freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and

faithfully discharge the duties of the office upon which I am about to enter; SO HELP

ME GOD.

NATIONAL GUARD OATH OF ENLISTMENT

B-4. The National Guard Oath of Enlistment reads:

I do hereby acknowledge to have voluntarily enlisted this __ day of ____, 20__, in the

______ National Guard of the State of ______ for a period of __ year(s) under the

conditions prescribed by law, unless sooner discharged by proper authority.

I, ________, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the

Constitution of the United States and of the State of ______ against all enemies, foreign

and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to them; and that I will obey the

orders of the President of the United States and the Governor of ______ and the orders

of the officers appointed over me, according to law and regulations. So help me God.

NATIONAL GUARD OATH OF OFFICE

B-5. The National Guard Oath of Office reads:

I, ______, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution

of the United States and the Constitution of the State of ______ against all enemies,

foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will

obey the orders of the President of the United States and of the Governor of the State of

______, that I make this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of

evasion, and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office of ______in

the National Guard of the State of ______upon which I am about to enter, so help me

God.

ARMY CIVILIAN OATH OF OFFICE

B-6. The Army Civilian Oath of Office (see figure B-2) reads:

I, ______, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution

of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith

and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental

reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties

of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.

CREEDS

B-7. The Army is a values-based organization. It upholds principles grounded in the Constitution and

inspires guiding values and standards for its members. Our creeds are statements of deeply held beliefs.

Examples of creeds include The Soldier’s Creed, Noncommissioned Officer Creed, and Army Civilian

Corps Creed.

Oaths, Creeds, and Norms of Conduct

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 B-3

Figure B-2. Civilian oath of office

THE SOLDIER’S CREED

B-8. The Soldier’s Creed, including the Warrior Ethos (the underlined and bolded text), captures the spirit

of dedication that Soldiers feel in being part of something greater than themselves. It outlines the

fundamental obligations of Soldiers to their fellow Soldiers, their unit, and the Army itself. The Soldier’s

Creed extends beyond service as a Soldier; it includes commitment to family and society.

I am an American Soldier.

I am a warrior and a member of a team.

I serve the people of the United States, and live the Army Values.

I will always place the mission first.

I will never accept defeat.

I will never quit.

I will never leave a fallen comrade.

I am disciplined, physically and mentally tough, trained and proficient in my warrior

tasks and drills.

I always maintain my arms, my equipment, and myself.

I am an expert and I am a professional.

I stand ready to deploy, engage, and destroy the enemies of the United States of America

in close combat.

I am a guardian of freedom and the American way of life.

I am an American Soldier.

Appendix B

B-4 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER CREED

B-9. The Noncommissioned Officer Creed reads:

No one is more professional than I. I am a noncommissioned officer, a leader of Soldiers.

As a noncommissioned officer, I realize that I am a member of a time honored corps,

which is known as “The Backbone of the Army”. I am proud of the Corps of

noncommissioned officers and will at all times conduct myself so as to bring credit upon

the Corps, the military service and my country regardless of the situation in which I find

myself. I will not use my grade or position to attain pleasure, profit, or personal safety.

Competence is my watchword. My two basic responsibilities will always be uppermost in

my mind—accomplishment of my mission and the welfare of my Soldiers. I will strive to

remain technically and tactically proficient. I am aware of my role as a

noncommissioned officer. I will fulfill my responsibilities inherent in that role. All

Soldiers are entitled to outstanding leadership; I will provide that leadership. I know my

Soldiers and I will always place their needs above my own. I will communicate

consistently with my Soldiers and never leave them uninformed. I will be fair and

impartial when recommending both rewards and punishment.

Officers of my unit will have maximum time to accomplish their duties; they will not have

to accomplish mine. I will earn their respect and confidence as well as that of my

Soldiers. I will be loyal to those with whom I serve; seniors, peers, and subordinates

alike. I will exercise initiative by taking appropriate action in the absence of orders. I

will not compromise my integrity, nor my moral courage. I will not forget, nor will I

allow my comrades to forget that we are professionals, noncommissioned officers,

leaders!

ARMY CIVILIAN CORPS CREED

B-10. The Army Civilian Corps Creed reads:

I am an Army civilian—a member of the Army team.

I am dedicated to our Army, our Soldiers and civilians.

I will always support the mission.

I provide stability and continuity during war and peace.

I support and defend the Constitution of the United States and consider it an honor to

serve our nation and our Army.

I live the Army values of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and

personal courage.

I am an Army civilian.

NORMS OF CONDUCT

B-11. The Army culture promotes certain norms of conduct. For example, discipline is central to its

professional identity. Soldiers who manage violence under the stress and ambiguity of combat require the

highest level of individual and organizational discipline. Likewise, because Soldiers must face the violence

of combat, they require the stiffening of discipline to help them perform their duty.

B-12. Army norms of conduct also demand adherence to the laws, treaties, and conventions governing the

conduct of war to which the United States is a party. The law of war seeks both to legitimatize and limit the

use of military force and prevent employing violence unnecessarily or inhumanely. For Army professionals,

this is more than a legal rule; it is an American value. For Americans, each individual has worth. Each is a

person endowed with unalienable rights.

Oaths, Creeds, and Norms of Conduct

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 B-5

ARMY VALUES

B-13. The Army Values are inherent within the moral principles of the Army Ethic and form the basic

moral building blocks of an Army Professional’s character. They help us judge what is right or wrong in any

situation.

Loyalty

Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, your unit and other

Soldiers. Bearing true faith and allegiance is a matter of believing in and devoting

yourself to something or someone. A loyal Soldier is one who supports the leadership and

stands up for fellow Soldiers. By wearing the uniform of the U.S. Army you are

expressing your loyalty. And by doing your share, you show your loyalty to your unit.

Duty

Fulfill your obligations. Doing your duty means more than carrying out your assigned

tasks. Duty means being able to accomplish tasks as part of a team. The work of the U.S.

Army is a complex combination of missions, tasks and responsibilities — all in constant

motion. Our work entails building one assignment onto another. You fulfill your

obligations as a part of your unit every time you resist the temptation to take “shortcuts”

that might undermine the integrity of the final product.

Respect

Treat people as they should be treated. In the Soldier’s Code, we pledge to “treat others

with dignity and respect while expecting others to do the same.” Respect is what allows

us to appreciate the best in other people. Respect is trusting that all people have done

their jobs and fulfilled their duty. And self-respect is a vital ingredient with the Army

value of respect, which results from knowing you have put forth your best effort. The

Army is one team and each of us has something to contribute.

Selfless Service

Put the welfare of the nation, the Army and your subordinates before your own. Selfless

service is larger than just one person. In serving your country, you are doing your duty

loyally without thought of recognition or gain. The basic building block of selfless service

is the commitment of each team member to go a little further, endure a little longer, and

look a little closer to see how he or she can add to the effort.

Honor

Live up to Army values. The nation’s highest military award is The Medal of Honor. This

award goes to Soldiers who make honor a matter of daily living — Soldiers who develop

the habit of being honorable, and solidify that habit with every value choice they make.

Honor is a matter of carrying out, acting, and living the values of respect, duty, loyalty,

selfless service, integrity and personal courage in everything you do.

Integrity

Do what’s right, legally and morally. Integrity is a quality you develop by adhering to

moral principles. It requires that you do and say nothing that deceives others. As your

integrity grows, so does the trust others place in you. The more choices you make based

on integrity, the more this highly prized value will affect your relationships with family

and friends, and, finally, the fundamental acceptance of yourself.

Personal Courage

Face fear, danger or adversity (physical or moral). Personal courage has long been

associated with our Army. With physical courage, it is a matter of enduring physical

duress and at times risking personal safety. Facing moral fear or adversity may be a

long, slow process of continuing forward on the right path, especially if taking those

actions is not popular with others. You can build your personal courage by daily

standing up for and acting upon the things that you know are honorable.

Appendix B

B-6 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

THE SOLDIER’S RULES

B-14. “The Soldier’s Rules” are a distillation of The Hague and Geneva Conventions as quoted in

FM 27-10, emphasized in training, incorporated into rules of engagement and rules for the use of force, and

followed in combat.

(1) Soldiers fight only enemy combatants.

(2) Soldiers do not harm enemies who surrender. They disarm them and turn them over

to their superior.

(3) Soldiers do not kill or torture any personnel in their custody.

(4) Soldiers collect and care for the wounded, whether friend or foe.

(5) Soldiers do not attack medical personnel, facilities, or equipment.

(6) Soldiers destroy no more than the mission requires.

(7) Soldiers treat civilians humanely.

(8) Soldiers do not steal. Soldiers respect private property and possessions.

(9) Soldiers should do their best to prevent violations of the law of war.

(10) Soldiers report all violations of the law of war to their superior.

TITLE 10 UNITED STATES CODE STANDARDS OF EXEMPLARY CONDUCT

B-15. Section 3583 of Title 10, United States Code provides the requirement of exemplary conduct.

All commanding officers and others in authority in the Army are required—

(1) to show in themselves a good example of virtue, honor, patriotism, and

subordination;

(2) to be vigilant in inspecting the conduct of all persons who are placed under their

command;

(3) to guard against and suppress all dissolute and immoral practices, and to correct,

according to the laws and regulations of the Army, all persons who are guilty of

them; and

(4) to take all necessary and proper measures, under the laws, regulations, and customs

of the Army, to promote and safeguard the morale, the physical well-being, and the

general welfare of the officers and enlisted persons under their command or charge.

THE GENERAL ORDERS

B-16. The General Orders are:

General Order Number 1: I will guard everything within the limits of my post and quit

my post only when properly relieved.

General Order Number 2: I will obey my special orders and perform all my duties in a

military manner.

General Order Number 3: I will report all violations of my special orders, emergencies,

and anything not covered in my instructions to the commander of relief.

CODE OF ETHICS FOR GOVERNMENT SERVICE

B-17. Civilians employed by the Federal Government abide by the Code of Ethics for Government Service:

Any person in government service should:

1. Put loyalty to the highest moral principles and to country above loyalty to persons,

party, or Government department.

Oaths, Creeds, and Norms of Conduct

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 B-7

2. Uphold the Constitution, laws, and legal regulations of the United States and of all

governments therein and never be a party to their evasion.

3. Give a full day’s labor for a full day’s pay; giving to the performance of his duties

his earnest effort and best thought.

4. Seek to find and employ more efficient and economical ways of getting tasks

accomplished.

5. Never discriminate unfairly by the dispensing of special favors or privileges to

anyone, whether for remuneration or not; and never accept, for himself or his

family, favors or benefits under circumstances which might be construed by

reasonable persons as influencing the performance of his governmental duties.

6. Make no private promises of any kind binding upon the duties of office, since a

Government employee has no private word which can be binding on public duty.

7. Engage in no business with the Government, either directly or indirectly, which is

inconsistent with the conscientious performance of his governmental duties.

8. Never use any information coming to him confidentially in the performance of

governmental duties as a means for making private profit.

9. Expose corruption wherever discovered.

10. Uphold these principles, ever conscious that public office is a public trust.

B-18. The Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees are:

(a) Public service is a public trust, requiring employees to place loyalty to the

Constitution, the laws, and ethical principles above private gain.

(b) Employees shall not hold financial interests that conflict with the conscientious

performance of duty.

(c) Employees shall not engage in financial transactions using nonpublic Government

information or allow the improper use of such information to further any private

interest.

(d) An employee shall not, except pursuant to such reasonable exceptions as are

provided by regulation, solicit or accept any gift or other item of monetary value

from any person or entity seeking official action from, doing business with, or

conducting activities regulated by the employee’s agency, or whose interests may be

substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of the employee’s

duties.

(e) Employees shall put forth honest effort in the performance of their duties.

(f) Employees shall make no unauthorized commitments or promises of any kind

purporting to bind the Government.

(g) Employees shall not use public office for private gain.

(h) Employees shall act impartially and not give preferential treatment to any private

organization or individual.

(i) Employees shall protect and conserve Federal property and shall not use it for other

than authorized activities.

(j) Employees shall not engage in outside employment or activities, including seeking or

negotiating for employment, that conflict with official Government duties and

responsibilities.

(k) Employees shall disclose waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate

authorities.

Appendix B

B-8 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

(l) Employees shall satisfy in good faith their obligations as citizens, including all just

financial obligations, especially those—such as Federal, State, or local taxes—that

are imposed by law.

(m) Employees shall adhere to all laws and regulations that provide equal opportunity

for all Americans regardless of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or

handicap.

(n) Employees shall endeavor to avoid any actions creating the appearance that they

are violating the law or the ethical standards promulgated pursuant to this order.

CODE OF CONDUCT FOR MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES

B-19. As members of the Armed Forces of the United States, Soldiers protect the Nation. It is a Soldier’s

duty to oppose all enemies of the United States in combat or, if a captive, in a prisoner of war compound. A

Soldier’s behavior is guided by the Code of Conduct, which has evolved from the heroic lives, experiences,

and deeds of Americans from the Revolutionary War to the present.

B-20. As a United States citizen and a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, a Soldier’s

obligations stem from the traditional values that underlie the American experience as a nation. These values

are best expressed in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights that all Soldiers have sworn to

uphold and defend. All United States Soldiers would have these obligations—to country, service, and unit

as well as fellow Americans—even if the Code of Conduct had never been formulated as a high standard of

general behavior.

B-21. The Code of Conduct is an ethical guide. Its six articles deal with a Soldier’s chief concerns as an

American in combat; these concerns become critical when a Soldier must evade capture, resist while a

prisoner, or escape from the enemy.

Article I: I am an American, fighting in the forces which guard my country and our way

of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

Article II: I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never

surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to resist.

Article III: If I am captured I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make

every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special

favors from the enemy.

Article IV: If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I will

give no information or take part in any action which might be harmful to my comrades. If

I am senior, I will take command. If not, I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed

over me and will back them up in every way.

Article V: When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give

name, rank, service number and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to

the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country

and its allies or harmful to their cause.

Article VI: I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible

for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust in

my God and in the United States of America.

GOLDEN RULE

B-22. Treat others as one would want to be treated; or, do not treat others as one would not like to be

treated.

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 Source Notes-1

Source Notes

This section lists sources by page number. Where material appears in a paragraph, it

lists both the page number followed by the paragraph number.

Front cover photos. Available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/6966661875 and

http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/7375267670. Bottom photo taken by

TRADOC Enterprise Multimedia Center at Fort Eustis, Virginia, 04 March 2015.

vi Introductory figure photos. Available at http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/july.html,

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/february.html,

http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/12/20/homecoming-final-us-forces-iraq-troops,

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/may.html#photo6, and

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/december.html.

1-1 “[We will] foster …”: General Raymond T. Odierno, 38th CSA, Marching Orders: America’s

Force of Decisive Action, January 2012 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,

2012), 2.

1-2 Figure 1-1 Trusted Army professionals photo. Available at

http://www.arl.army.mil/www/articles/2543/image.3.large.jpg.

1-4 1-22 “The all-volunteer …”: ADP 1, The Army. Available at

http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adp1.pdf.

1-4 Figure 1-2 photos. Available at http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/july.html,

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/february.html,

http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/12/20/homecoming-final-us-forces-iraq-troops,

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/may.html#photo6, and

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/december.html.

2-1 “The Army Ethic, …”: McHugh, John M., as quoted in the Executive Summary (EXSUM)

Secretary of the Army’s (SECARMY) Senior Civilian Army Profession Symposium (SACAPS)

(Washington, DC: National Defense University, 20 November 2014), 2.

2-1 Figure 2-1. The Army seal. Available at

http://www.defense.gov/multimedia/web_graphics/army/USAc1.eps.

2-2 2-7 “We the People …”: Preamble to the Constitution. Available at http://www.archives.gov/

exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html.

2-4 Figure 2-2. Washington at Valley Forge. Painting by E. Percy Moran. Available at

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92506172/.

2-4 “In 1776, American leaders …”: Fischer, David Hackett, Washington’s Crossing (New York:

Oxford University Press, 2004), 375–376.

2-5 Figure 2-3 Honorable servants of the Nation photo. Available at

http://usarmy.vo.llnwd.net/e2/c/images/2013/05/22/296844/size0.jpg.

2-10 Figure 2-5 Our shared identity photo. Available at

https://www.dvidshub.net/image/1145986/army-medicine-wolf-pack-award.

3-1 “[T]rust stands out …”: General Martin E. Dempsey, America’s Military – A Profession of

Arms: White Paper (February 2012), 4. Available at

http://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Publications/aprofessionofarms.pdf.

3-1 Figure 3-1 Trust with the American people photo. Available at

Hurricane Sandy assistance

3-2 Figure 3-2 Trust between Soldiers photo. Available at

https://farm5.staticflickr.com/4007/4581456896_b839b3b7ac_o_d.jpg.

3-3 Figure 3-3 Trust—the bedrock of our profession photo. Available at

http://www.defense.gov/photos/newsphoto.aspx?newsphotoid=15902.

Source Notes

Source Notes-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

3-3 3-8 “[W]e will work on …”: General Martin E. Dempsey, “April 11—Assumption of

Responsibility Ceremony Remarks” (Washington, DC, 13 April 2011). Available at

http://www.army.mil/article/54847/Apr__11__2011__Assumption_of_Responsibility_Ceremo

ny_remarks/.

3-5 3-25 “I will never …”: Warrior Ethos. Available at http://www.army.mil/values/warrior.html.

4-1 “The Nation today …”: General Omar Bradley quoted by Lieutenant Colonel Gordon K.

Cusack in “Repatriation in the China Theater,” Military Review: The Professional Journal of

the U.S. Army (May 1948), 62.

4-1 Figure 4-1 Honorable service photos. Available at http://www.michaelyon-online.com/little-

girl.htm, http://www.defense.gov/dodcmsshare/photoessay/2014-07/hires_140722-N-AF077-

284.jpg, and https://www.dvidshub.net/image/492225/jmtc-civilian-receives-award-heroism.

4-2 4-6 “that I will …”: Oath of Office. Available at

http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:5 section:3331 edition:prelim).

4-2 Upholding the Army Ethic vignette. Extracted from article by Joshua Partlow, “U.S. Soldier

Reportedly Described Rape Scene,” Washington Post, 08 August 2006.

4-3 4-15 “last full measure …”: Lincoln, Abraham. “Transcript of Gettysburg Address,”

November 19, 1863. Available at

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=36&page=transcript.

4-3 “It was the honor …”: Staff Sergeant Ryan Pitts, Medal of Honor Induction Ceremony—Hall

of Heroes Address, 22 July 2014. Available at

http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ryanpittsmedalofhonor.htm.

5-1 “I am an expert …”: Soldier’s Creed. Available at

https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_aa/pdf/tc3_21x75.pdf.

5-2 Figure 5-1 Develop expert knowledge and apply military expertise photo. Available at

http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011/february.html.

5-2 “Volunteers are the cornerstone …”: General Ann E. Dunwoody quote provided in e-mail

from Mr. Mike Mullins to Ms. Linda Tarsa on 27 September 2011.

5-3 Figure 5-2 Change of command photo. Available at

http://usarmy.vo.llnwd.net/e2/c/images/2012/08/07/259262/size0.jpg

6-1 “A common thread …”: General Raymond T. Odierno. “Today’s Army: The Strength of Our

Nation.” Association of the United States Army’s Army Magazine (October 2012), 32.

Available at

http://www.ausa.org/publications/armymagazine/archive/2012/10/Documents/Odierno_1012.p

df

6-1 6-1 “common spirit”: Cited in U.S. Department of Defense [S. L. A. Marshall], The Armed

Forces Officer (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), xiii.

6-1 Figure 6-1 Stewardship of the Army Profession photo. Available at

http://www.defense.gov/DODCMSShare/NewsStoryPhoto/2014-06/hrs_140619-D-NI589-

106a.jpg.

6-2 6-4 “exceptional and unremitting …”: Department of Defense [S. L. A. Marshall], The Armed

Forces Officer (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1950), 2.

6-3 Figure 6-2 Civilian-military relations photo. Available at

http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123418.

7-1 “The Soldier’s heart, …”: Marshall, George C., Selected Speeches and Statements of General

of the Army George C. Marshall, ed. by H. A. De Weerd (Washington, DC: The Infantry

Journal, 1945), 122.

7-1 Figure 7-1 Develop a winning spirit photo. Available at

Sunrise run

Source Notes

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 Source Notes-3

7-2 Esprit de Corps—the Battle of Bastogne vignette. Summarized from Hugh M. Cole’s The

Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1965, reprinted

2005), 467–468.

7-3 Figure 7-2 Grounded in traditions and history. Available at

Celebrating 70 years of Valor

B-1 B-2 “I, ______, do solemnly …”: Oath of Enlistment. Available at

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title10/html/USCODE-2011-title10-subtitleA-

partII-chap31-sec502.htm.

B-1 Figure B-1 Oath of enlistment photo. Available at

http://usarmy.vo.llnwd.net/e2/c/images/2011/10/31/225065/size0.jpg.

B-2 B-3 “I, ______, having …”: DA Form 71 (Oath of Office – Military Personnel). Available at

http://www.apd.army.mil/pub/eforms/pdf/a71.pdf.

B-2 B-4 “I do hereby acknowledge …”: National Guard Oath of Enlistment. Available at

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title32/pdf/USCODE-2011-title32-chap3-

sec304.pdf.

B-2 B-5 “I, ______, do solemnly …”: National Guard Oath of Office. Available at

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title32/pdf/USCODE-2011-title32-chap3-

sec312.pdf.

B-2 B-6 “I, ______, do solemnly …”: Oath of Office (Army Civilians). Available at

http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:5 section:3331 edition:prelim).

B-3 Figure B-2 Civilian oath of office photo. Available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/sec-

army-pao/15834933711/in/photostream/.

B-3 B-8 “I am an American Soldier …”: Soldier’s Creed. Available at

https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_aa/pdf/tc3_21x75.pdf.

B-4 B-9 “No one is more …”: Noncommissioned Officer Creed. Available at

http://www.army.mil/values/nco.html.

B-4 B-10 “I am an Army Civilian …”: Army Civilian Corps Creed. Available at

http://www.army.mil/values/corps.html.

B-5 B-13 “Loyalty. Bear true faith …”: The Army Values. Available at

http://www.army.mil/values/index.html.

B-6 B-14 “(1) Soldiers fight only …”: “The Soldier’s Rules” in AR 350-1, page 187. Available at

http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r350_1.pdf.

B-6 B-15 “All commanding officers …”: Title 10, United States Code, Section 3583. Available at

http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:10%20section:3583%20edition:prelim)#.

B-6 B-16 “General Order Number 1…”: FM 7-21.13, The Soldier’s Guide. Available at

http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm7_21x13.pdf.

B-6 B-17 “Any person in …”: Code of Ethics for Government Service. Available at

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title39-vol1-part3000-

appA.pdf.

B-7 B-18 “(a) Public Service is a …”: “Principles of Ethical Conduct.” Available at

http://oge.gov/Laws-and-Regulations/Executive-Orders/Exec-Order-HTML-Pages/Executive-

Order-12731-(Oct–17,-1990)—Principles-of-Ethical-Conduct-for-Government-Officers-and-

Employees/.

B-8 B-21 “Article I: I am an …”: Code of Conduct. Available at http://www.archives.gov/federal-

register/codification/executive-order/10631.html.

Back cover Photo of Soldier. Available at www.defenseimagery.mil.

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14 June 2015 ADRP 1 Glossary-1

Glossary

The glossary lists acronyms and terms with Army definitions. Terms for which

ADRP 1 is the proponent are marked with an asterisk (*).

SECTION I – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ADP Army doctrine publication

ADRP Army doctrine reference publication

DA Department of the Army

FM field manual

TC training circular

U.S. United States

SECTION II – TERMS

*Army Civilian Corps

A community within the Army Profession composed of civilians serving in the Department of the

Army.

*Army Ethic

The evolving set of laws, values, and beliefs, embedded within the Army culture of trust that motivates

and guides the conduct of Army professionals bound together in common moral purpose.

*Army Profession

A unique vocation of experts certified in the ethical design, generation, support, and application of

landpower, serving under civilian authority and entrusted to defend the Constitution and the rights and

interests of the American people.

*Army professional

A Soldier or Army Civilian who meets the Army Profession’s certification criteria in character,

competence, and commitment.

*certification

Verification and validation of an Army professional’s character, competence, and commitment to fulfill

responsibilities and successfully perform assigned duty with discipline and to standard.

*character

Dedication and adherence to the Army Ethic, including Army Values, as consistently and faithfully

demonstrated in decisions and actions.

*commitment

Resolve to contribute honorable service to the Nation and accomplish the mission despite adversity,

obstacles, and challenges.

*competence

Demonstrated ability to successfully perform duty with discipline and to standard.

*esprit de corps

A traditional military expression that denotes the Army’s common spirit, a collective ethos of

camaraderie and cohesion within the team.

Glossary

Glossary-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

*external trust

The confidence and faith that the American people have in the Army to serve the Nation ethically,

effectively, and efficiently.

*honorable service

Support and defense of the Constitution, the American people, and the national interest in a manner

consistent with the Army Ethic.

*internal trust

Reliance on the character, competence, and commitment of Army professionals to live by and uphold

the Army Ethic.

*military expertise

Ethical design, generation, support, and application of landpower, primarily in unified land operations,

and all supporting capabilities essential to accomplish the mission in defense of the American people.

*Profession of Arms

A community within the Army Profession composed of Soldiers of the Regular Army, Army National

Guard, and Army Reserve.

*stewardship

The responsibility of Army professionals to strengthen the Army as a profession and to care for the

people and other resources entrusted to them by the American people.

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 References-1

References

All URLs accessed on 06 March 2015.

REQUIRED PUBLICATIONS These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.

ADRP 1-02. Terms and Military Symbols. 02 February 2015.

JP 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 08 November 2010.

RELATED PUBLICATIONS These documents contain relevant supplemental information.

ARMY PUBLICATIONS

Most Army doctrinal publications are available online: http://www.apd.army.mil/.

ADP 1. The Army. 17 September 2012.

ADRP 6-0. Mission Command. 17 May 2012.

AR 350-1. Army Training and Leader Development. 19 August 2014.

FM 7-21.13. The Soldier’s Guide. 02 February 2004.

FM 27-10. The Law of Land Warfare. 18 July 1956.

TC 3-21.75. The Warrior Ethos and Soldier Combat Skills. 13 August 2013.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Army Civilian Corps Creed. Available at http://www.army.mil/values/corps.html.

Army Civilian Oath of Office. Available at http://cpol.army.mil/library/permiss/74b.html.

Army Values. Available at http://www.army.mil/values/index.html.

Code of Ethics for Government Service. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title39-

vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title39-vol1-part3000-appA.pdf.

Cole, Hugh M. The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,

1965. Reprint, 2005.

Constitution of the United States. Available at

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html.

Cusack, Gordon K. “Repatriation in the China Theater.” Military Review: The Professional Journal of

the U.S. Army (May 1948): 58–62.

Dempsey, Martin E. America’s Military—A Profession of Arms: White Paper (February 2012), 4.

Dempsey, Martin E. “April 11—Assumption of Responsibility Ceremony Remarks.” Washington, DC,

13 April 2011. Available at

http://www.army.mil/article/54847/Apr__11__2011__Assumption_of_Responsibility_Ceremo

ny_remarks/.

Dunwoody, Ann E. Statement provided in an e-mail from Mr. Mike Mullins to Ms. Linda Tarsa.

27 September 2011.

Executive Order 10631. Code of Conduct for Members of the Armed Forces of the United States.

17 August 1955. Available at http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-

order/10631.html.

References

References-2 ADRP 1 14 June 2015

Executive Order 12731. Principles of Ethical Conduct. 17 October 1990. Available at

http://oge.gov/Laws-and-Regulations/Executive-Orders/Exec-Order-HTML-Pages/Executive-

Order-12731-(Oct–17,-1990)—Principles-of-Ethical-Conduct-for-Government-Officers-and-

Employees/.

Executive Summary (EXSUM) Secretary of the Army’s (SECARMY) Senior Civilian Army Profession

Symposium (SACAPS). Washington, DC: National Defense University, 20 November 2014.

Fischer, David Hackett. Washington’s Crossing. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Geneva Conventions. Available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/lawwar.asp.

The Hague Conventions. Available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/lawwar.asp.

Lincoln, Abraham. “Transcript of Gettysburg Address.” 19 November 1863. Available at

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=36&page=transcript.

Marshall, George C. Selected Speeches and Statements of General of the Army George C. Marshall,

ed. by H. A. De Weerd. Washington, DC: The Infantry Journal, 1945.

National Guard Oath of Enlistment. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-

title32/pdf/USCODE-2011-title32-chap3-sec304.pdf.

National Guard Oath of Office. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-

title32/pdf/USCODE-2011-title32-chap3-sec312.pdf.

Noncommissioned Officer Creed. Available at http://www.army.mil/values/nco.html.

Oath of Enlistment. Available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2011-title10/html/USCODE-

2011-title10-subtitleA-partII-chap31-sec502.htm.

Oath of Office (Army Civilians). Available at http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:5

section:3331 edition:prelim).

Odierno, Raymond T. Marching Orders: America’s Force of Decisive Action, January 2012.

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2012.

Odierno, Raymond T. “Today’s Army: The Strength of Our Nation.” Association of the United States

Army’s Army Magazine (October 2012), 25–32.

Partlow, Joshua. “U.S. Soldier Reportedly Described Rape Scene.” Washington Post, 08 August 2006.

Soldier’s Creed. Available at

https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_aa/pdf/tc3_21x75.pdf.

United States Code. Available at http://uscode.house.gov/browse/prelim@title5&edition=prelim.

Title 5, United States Code. Government Organization and Employees.

Title 10, United States Code. Armed Forces.

Title 32, United States Code. National Guard.

U.S. Department of Defense [S. L. A. Marshall]. The Armed Forces Officer. Washington, DC:

Government Printing Office, 1950.

Warrior Ethos. Available at http://www.army.mil/values/warrior.html.

WEB SITES Army photos. Available at http://www.army.mil/yearinphotos/2011, http://www.arl.army.mil/,

http://www.defense.gov/multimedia/web_graphics/,

http://www.defenseimagery.mil/imagery.html, and

http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/.

Center for the Army Profession and Ethic (CAPE). Available at http://cape.army.mil/.

United States Code. Available at http://uscode.house.gov/.

RECOMMENDED READINGS Army White Paper. The Army Ethic. 11 July 2014.

References

14 June 2015 ADRP 1 References-3

Army White Paper. The Army Civilian Corps: A Vital Component of the Army Profession.

01 February 2012.

Army White Paper. The Profession of Arms. 08 December 2010.

Hackett, Lt.-Gen. Sir John Winthrop. The Profession of Arms. Washington, DC: Center of Military

History, 1986.

Hartle, Anthony E. Moral Issues in Military Decision Making. Revised second edition. Lawrence, KS:

University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Huntington, Samuel. The Soldier and the State. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University,

1957.

Janowitz, Morris. The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait. New York: The Free

Press, 1960.

Millett, Allan R. and Peter Maslowski. For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United

States of America. Revised and expanded. New York: The Free Press, 1994.

Snider, Don M. and Lloyd J. Matthews. The Future of the Army Profession. Revised and expanded

second edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

PRESCRIBED FORMS None.

REFERENCED FORMS Unless otherwise indicated, DA forms are available on the Army Publishing Directorate web site:

http://www.apd.army.mil/.

DA Form 71. Oath of Office – Military Personnel.

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.

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By Order of the Secretary of the Army

RAYMOND T. ODIERNO General, United States Army

Chief of Staff

Official:

GERALD B. O’KEEFE Administrative Assistant to the

Secretary of the Army 1512504

DISTRIBUTION: Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number (IDN) 110510, requirements for ADRP 1.

ADRP 1 14 June 2015

THE UNITED STATES ARMY— THE STRENGTH OF THE NATION

PIN: 103546-000

  • COVER
  • CONTENTS
  • PREFACE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHAPTER 1: The United States Army Profession
  • CHAPTER 2: The Army Ethic
  • CHAPTER 3: Trust – The Bedrock of Our Profession
  • CHAPTER 4: Honorable Service – Our Noble Calling
  • CHAPTER 5: Military Expertise – Our Application of Landpower
  • CHAPTER 6: Stewardship of the Army Profession
  • CHAPTER 7: Esprit de Corps – Our Winning Spirit
  • APPENDIX A
  • APPENDIX B
  • SOURCE NOTES
  • GLOSSARY
  • REFERENCES

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