STUDY GUIDE 7: VITAMINS

STUDY GUIDE 7: VITAMINS

Directions. Using Chapters 10 and 11, and the DRI tables (pp. A, B) of your textbook as a reference, answer the following questions. Please include the questions with your answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources.

1. Define these terms:

Acne

Alpha tocopherol

Anemia

Antioxidant

Antiscorbutic factor

Ascorbic acid

Atrophic gastritis

Beriberi

Beta carotene

Bioavailability

Biotin

Calbindin

Calciferol

Carnitine

Carotenoids

Chlorophyll

Cofactor

Coenzyme

Collagen

Dietary folate equivalents (DFE)

Dietary supplement

Erythrocyte hemolysis

False negative

False positive

FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

Folate

Free radical

Hemolytic anemia

Hemophilia

Hemorrhagic disease

High potency

Histamine

Inositol

Intrinsic factor

Keratin

Keratinization

Keratomalacia

Menaquinone

Nanoceuticals

Nanotechnology

Neural tube

Neural tube defects

Niacin

Niacin equivalents (NE)

Night blindness

Osteocalcin

Osteomalacia

Oxidants

Oxidative stress

Pantothenic acid

Pellagra

Peak bone mass

Pernicious anemia

Phylloquinone

Phytochemical

Precursor

Preformed vitamin A

Proxidants

Remodeling

Retinal

Retinoic acid

Retinoids

Retinol

Retinol activity equivalents (RAE)

Retinol-binding protein

Riboflavin

Rickets

Scurvy

Sterile

Teratogen

Thiamin

Tocopherols

Tocotrienols

Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin A activity

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B12

Vitamin D2

Vitamin D3

Xanthophylls

Xerophthalmia

Xerosis

2. Discuss the differences between macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and vitamins.

3. Sue W. is a 43-year-old British woman who recently moved to the United States. She smokes a half pack of cigarettes a day. She is 64 inches tall, weighs 185 pounds, and has a family history of heart disease. Her diet is high in protein, mostly from beef and chicken. She dislikes most vegetables except corn and potatoes. She eats fruit only occasionally and often skips breakfast. After taking a nutrition class at a local community college, Sue is concerned that her diet may be deficient in folate and vitamin C. When she looks at the Nutrition Facts for some foods in her pantry, this is what she finds:

Instant Breakfast Essentials( powder, 1 packet: 50% DV vitamin C, 25% DV folate

Ovaltine( drink mix, 2 T: 10% DV vitamin C, 0% DV folate

Raisin Bran( cereal, 1 cup: 0% DV vitamin C, 25% DV folate

Toasted oats cereal, 1 cup: 10% DV vitamin C, 50% DV folate

a. Sue learned in class that 400 micrograms provides 100% of the Daily Value (DV) for folate. Calculate the amount of folate in µg in each of the above foods.

b. Sue also learned that 60 milligrams provides 100% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin C. Calculate the amount of vitamin C in mg in each of these foods.

c. Based on her current diet, which food group is most likely the primary source of folate in Sue’s diet? What explains the high amount of folate in these foods?

d. Considering her current diet and lifestyle habits, why might Sue need extra vitamin C in her diet?

e. Even if she were to achieve 100% of the Daily Value for vitamin C from the fortified foods in her pantry, what are some reasons that Sue should still consider increasing her intake of fresh fruits and vegetables?

f. Based on her family history, why is it important for Sue to get an adequate amount of folate in her daily diet?

g. Show how Sue might combine the foods in her pantry with some of the foods listed in Figure 10-13 and Figure 10-19 to plan one day of meals that meet her requirements for dietary folate and vitamin C.

4. Differentiate between water- and fat-soluble vitamins.

5. Jackson M. has alcoholism and pays no attention to his diet. Besides the harmful effects on his liver, drinking excess alcohol can cause deficiencies in certain B vitamins. Explain why this can occur.

6. Lee H, a student at an urban Baltimore community college, is taking an introductory nutrition class. Lee works out regularly and is meticulous about planning his meals and is careful not to skip them. Although Lee believes he already knows a lot about nutrition and has good eating habits, he is interested in learning more about the relationship between nutrition and health. Lee has begun to take several vitamin supplements as part of a program promoted by his gym. A number of the vitamins he is taking provide more than 500 percent of the DRI. Lee thinks that these are a ‘bonus’ and that the excess gives him extra energy when he is exercising. During a lecture in his nutrition class, Lee’s professor noted that taking supplements may not be wise, and he emphasized that a good diet should provide all needed nutrients. During another class, the concept of vitamin toxicity was discussed. Lee’s nutrition text reinforced his instructor’s views.

Based on this new information, Lee becomes concerned that he may be overdosing on his vitamin intake. However, he also trusts the fitness experts at the gym and does not think that they would promote a potentially harmful practice.

a. What should Lee do to resolve this conflict and still achieve his goal?

b. Do you think Lee may be overdosing on his vitamin intake? Explain your answer.

c. Do you think it is dangerous if Lee is overdosing on his vitamin intake? Explain your answer.

7. Kelly R. is a 38 year old African American executive. She tries to lead an active life and uses oral contraceptives. Kelly and her husband want to start a family. Kelly’s blood work reveals a low folate level, and low serum vitamin B-12. She usually skips lunch on a sandwich and coffee mid-afternoon. Kelly has no medical problems however she recently had extensive surgery on her ankle.

a. What recommendations do you have for Kelly about folate?

b. What recommendations do you have for Kelly regarding vitamin B-12?

c. Using information from Figure 10-13 in your text, list one or two good sources from each of the food groups that Kelly could add to her diet?

d. Should Kelly be using over-the-counter vitamin supplements after surgery? Why or why not?

8. Read the “How to 10-1” box on page 298 of your text. Calculate which food provides more vitamin A per one ounce serving and which is more nutrient dense — Complete the following chart:

Food Serving Size (kcalories) Vitamin A, µg RAE Vitamin A per one ounce serving Nutrient density (µg RAE / kcal)
Corn Flakes, fortified 1 ounce (110 kcal) 205
Broccoli ½ cup cooked – 3 ounces (22 kcal) 60
Banana 1 medium raw – 4 ounces (109 kcal) 4
Milk, fortified 1 cup reduced fat 2% — 8 ounces (121 kcal) 134
Cheddar Cheese 1½ ounces (171 kcal) 75
Pinto Beans ½ cup cooked — 2 ounces (117 kcal) 0
Peanut butter 2 tbs – 1 ounce (188 kcal) 0
Egg 1 hard cooked – 2 ounces (78 kcal) 75
Beef Liver 3 ounces fried (184 kcal) 6586

What conclusions can you draw from the work you did?

PAGE

-4-


Comments are closed.