STUDY GUIDE 8: MINERALS AND WATER

STUDY GUIDE 8: MINERALS AND WATER

Directions. Using Chapters 12, and the DRI tables (pp A, B) in your textbook as a reference, answer the following questions. Please include the questions with your answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources.

1. Define these terms:

Adrenal glands

Aldosterone

Angiotensin I

Angiotensin II

Angiotensinogen

Anions

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Bicarbonate

Binders

Bioavailability

Bottled water

Buffers

Calcitonin

Calcium

Calcium-binding protein

Calcium tetany

Calmodulin

Carbonic acid

Cations

Chloride

Dehydration

Dissociates

Electrolytes

Electrolyte solutions

Extracellular fluid

Hard water

Hydroxyapatite

Hyponatremia

Hypothalamus

Interstitial fluid

Intracellular fluid

Intravascular fluid

Ions

Magnesium

Major mineral

Metabolic water

Milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)

Mineralization

Obligatory water excretion

Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

Osmosis

Osmotic pressure

Osteopenia

Osteoporosis

Parathyroid hormone

Phosphorus

Potassium

Peak bone mass

Renin

Salt

Sodium

Soft water

Solutes

Sulfate

Sulfur

Thirst

Trace mineral

Vasoconstrictor

Water balance

Water intoxication

2. Mrs. Atkinson has recently seen and heard a lot about the amount of salt in foods. She has been surprised by the number of nutrition web sites that recommend that people decrease the amount of salt in their food. If sodium is such a bad thing, Mrs. Atkinson wonders, why do you need to have any at all?How would you explain this to her?

3. Evelina is a vegan. She stopped eating meat and dairy products when she was a teenager. She is now in her early thirties. She wants to start a family but is concerned about whether she can obtain enough calcium in her diet to ensure her baby’s health. She is also concerned that she might be at risk for osteoporosis. How can Evelina consume enough calcium to meet her own and her baby’s needs?

4. Josh is a 17-year-old high school football player who has been doing “two-a-day” practices in preparation for the upcoming season. He is in good physical condition at 5 feet 10 inches and 165 pounds. He is attempting to gain weight, so he has increased his intake of protein foods and estimates he eats approximately 3500 kcalories a day. One particularly hot afternoon, Josh is sweating profusely and begins to feel weak and has a difficult time keeping up with his usual practice routines. Noticing that his face is visibly flushed, his coach has him sit out of practice. Josh reports having eaten 2 peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, potato chips, and a can of soda for lunch about 2 hours before practice. He had a breakfast burrito with eggs and cheese for breakfast with a 12 ounce glass of orange juice.

a. What signs of dehydration does Josh exhibit?

b. Based on these signs of dehydration, what percentage of body fluid would you estimate Josh has lost?

c. Along with water, what essential nutrients has Josh’s body most likely lost as a result of his heavy sweating?

d. Using his reported caloric intake, estimate Josh’s fluid needs in liters.

e. Besides fruit juice and soda, what foods and beverages could help meet Josh’s fluid requirement?

f. What food groups appear to be deficient in Josh’s usual diet? What essential minerals are likely to be lacking as a result of his limited diet?

5. Lyn is a 42-year-old African American woman in reasonably good health. Her mother has high blood pressure and recently suffered a mild stroke. Lyn, who sometimes has her mother over for meals, has decided to look more closely at the sodium content of the food she prepares for her family.

She is planning to prepare a casserole for her family and looks up the sodium content in milligrams (mg) for the main ingredients:

· 2 cups roasted chicken (120 mg sodium per cup)

· 1 can cream of chicken soup (800 mg sodium per ½ cup serving, 2.5 servings per can)

· 1 cup grated cheese (180 mg sodium per ¼ cup)

· 2 cups frozen broccoli (40 mg sodium per cup)

· 1 teaspoon salt (480 mg sodium per ¼ teaspoon)

· ¼ teaspoon curry powder (0 mg sodium)

· Pepper (0 mg sodium)

a. According to the Dietary Guidelines mentioned in Chapter 12 of your text, what is the recommendation regarding sodium intake in milligrams for Lynn and her family?

b. Assuming her recipe serves four, calculate the milligrams (mg) of sodium in one serving of Lynn’s casserole. Show your work.

c. How does this meal contribute to her family’s daily sodium goal addressed in question 6a, above?

d. Using the information in the “How To 12-1” feature on page 371 in chapter 12 of your text, what general changes might Lynn make to decrease the amount of sodium in this recipe?

e. Assume that Lynn has found a lower-sodium soup for her recipe (528 mg sodium per serving, 2 servings per can). Using this product and other changes you suggested in question 6d, above, revise her original recipe and recalculate the sodium content of one serving. Show your work.

f. Using information from chapter 12 of your text, what other nutrition strategies might help Lynn plan meals for her family that could help lower blood pressure?

6. Explain how the concept of obligatory water excretion helps to explain how fluid balance is regulated in the individual. What factors may lead to alterations in the obligatory water excretion process in the body?

7. What factors affect the bioavailability of a mineral? Why is this significant in terms of functionality of minerals in the body?

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