Summaries of Religions ASSIGNMENT EASTERN ASIAN PHILOSOPHY

Summaries of Religions ASSIGNMENT EASTERN ASIAN PHILOSOPHY

Seeking College level writing, detailed, articulate, competent and complete summarizations explaining content. Follow instructions for full credit vs. Points taken off or zero. Use titles, subtitles& citations.

Summarizing two part, FOUR sectioned book text in scholarly content. The reading summaries should be inclusive a complete, including being addressed within the summaries. Please TITLE CONTENT SECTIONS, Example; SUM ONE – a.) Remaining Upanishads , b.) Heterodox Alternatives, c. Dhammapada: Complete, d.)The Diamond Sutra. SUM TWO – a.)Orthodox Perspectives, b.)The Bhagavad Gita, c.)Western Encounters -Gandhi, d.)Chinese Thought, Confucius.

Summary & Analysis, of written content in essay format, addressing specific readings in Summary One & Summary TwoFour parts each. Use free online textbook resources on ancient Asian philosophy to access & reference the noted topics.

SUMMARY ONE

PT One– Asian Western Encounters, GHANDI 5-7 paragraphs

Discuss Ahimsa & Satyagrahi, truth, God, on-Violence

PT TWO- Chinese Thought Regarding, CONFUCIUS Origins 5-7 paragraphs

PT THREE Chinese TAOIST ALTERNATIVES Philosophy 5-7 paprgraphs

PT FOUR -Chinese BUDDIST INNOVATIONS Philosophy 5-7 paragraphs

SUMMARY TWO

PT ONE- NEO-CONFUCIAN SYYTHESES 3-5 paragraphs

PT TWO- ASIAN WESTERN ENCOUNTERS (Mao Tsetung) 3-5 paragraphs

PT THREE –ASIAN WESTERN ENCOUNTERS (living alone) (Lin Yutang) 3-5 paragraphs

PT FOUR- Western Encounters – INDIA , Vasco da Gama & Aurobindo Ghose (1872-1950) 5-7 paragraphs

PRINT OUT resource ON GHANDI & CONFUCIUS please use other journal articles to complete assignment?

On Gandhi

In keeping with Upanishadic descriptions of Braham, Gandhi discusses God as being indefinable and unknowable but as all that exists and as always present and noticeable.

Gandhi defines God as Truth (Sat—Being, Reality) and thus is able to accommodate the intuitions of Hindus and non-Hindus (e.g. Western atheists). God as Truth means that God is not distinct from God’s law and thus the impersonal conception Braham is highest for Gandhi.

Truth can be realized through experience (practical experiments) and requires nonviolence—anything of value can only be established through nonviolence. Pure ends can only be reached by pure needs.

Nonviolence can be understood as soul force (Satyagraha; distinct from physical force). Successfully practicing nonviolence requires the ability (not the will) to inflict violence, non-possession, and freedom from exploitation. The practice of nonviolence applies to everyone (“Ahimsa is the attribute of the soul” and must be practiced in all departments of life.

Thus successful nonviolent campaigns require purity on the part of the satyagrahi—exemplified by his/her ability to endure suffering (even to the death) without retaliation. “For violence flourishes on response, either by submission to the will of the violator, or by counter-violence.”(p. 273) “(The way of satyagraha) is the aseptic method in which the physician allows the poison to work itself out by setting in motion all the natural forces and letting them have full play.”(p. 274)

Since nonviolence is the “virtue of the strong” it is not passive and being violent is actually preferable, Gandhi believes, to cowardly fleeing conflict.

On Confucius

In The Analects, Confucius’ ethical ideal is laid out in the simple proposition: “The Gentleman follows the Way of self-cultivation of Virtue, observance of Rites, devotion to Learning, and Public Service.”

Confucius redefined Gentleman to mean a morally distinguished person—noble in refinement, integrity, and lofty ethical character, regardless of inherited social standing. Confucius cites examples from earlier history as well as that of one his own disciples (Yan Yuan) as true personifications of the Gentleman.

The Gentleman, above all else, pursues the Way (understood here as the right course of conduct for individuals and governments).

For Confucius, ethical principles are right in and of themselves (not because they come from heaven or lead to good results) and should be followed for that reason alone.

The Way can be understood as the way of self-cultivation of Virtue, observance of the Rites, devotion to Learning, and Public Service. To cultivate Virtue is to develop one’s moral character by acquiring the specific moral excellences Heaven has prescribed—Benevolence (jen), Righteousness (yi), and Propriety (li) being of supreme importance. Also of importance are Virtues like filial piety, brotherly love, trustworthiness, and loyalty. These are virtues that pertain to the Five Essential Human Relationships—husband and wife, father and son, elder and younger brother, ruler and minister, friend and friend.

For Confucius observances of the Rites give Virtue a medium of expression. This follows since the Rites provide stylized patterns of conduct by means of which the common life of people can be morally upgraded.

Devotion to learning must be couple, according to Confucius, with reflection –learning without thinking is useless.

Public Service is the ultimate purpose of the Gentleman. Virtue, the Rites, and Learning are not only legitimate ends unto themselves but also means to the further end of Public Service.

Confucius’ political philosophy (which is secondary to his ethics) holds that the nation is healthy when there is harmony throughout the Five Essential Human Relationships, the nation is well governed when the rulers are Gentlemen, and that the actual system of government is not of primary importance.

After the Analects, Confucian philosophy (via the work of his successors) began to more strongly emphasize the themes of Harmony, Community, the doctrine of the Mean and also became immersed in debates about human nature, the role of law enforcement, as well as how heaven should be interpreted.


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