Although the first people God created, Adam and Eve, had complete freedom to live in friendship and trust with God, they chose to rebel (Gen. 3:1-7).
Because God designed that Adam would represent the entire human race, his sin was catastrophic not only for him but for us: “one trespass led to condemnation for all men” (Rom. 5:18). Our fellowship with God was broken. Instead of enjoying his holy pleasure, we instead face his righteous wrath. Through this sin, we all died spiritually (see Rom. 3:1–20; Eph. 2:1–10) and the entire world was affected. God also cursed the world over which humanity had been set to reign as his lieutenants (see Gen. 3:17–19). “The creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it” (Rom. 8:20). And we all individually sin against God in our own lives: “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Rom. 3:23).
It’s important for us to understand that God’s heart was broken because of the disobedience of Adam and Eve, but he could not ignore what they had done. God always does what is good, right and perfect, and His perfect justice required that there be consequences for rebellion. So God punished Adam and Eve by throwing them out of the Garden outside of his care and protection. No longer following God’s way, they were now subject to sickness, pain and death. God continued to love Adam and Eve — he even created clothing for them out of animal skins so they would not be ashamed outside of the Garden.
However, the Bible also teaches that there has been an enduring effect of the sin of Adam and Eve recorded in Genesis 3. Because of that sin, we are born morally fallen. We are naturally turned away from God and toward sin in every area of life. We are not as bad as we possibly could be, but we are at no point as good as we ought to be. We are now all sinners, and we sin in all areas of life (Rom.3:23). We are corrupted and make the wrong choices. We are not holy, and are in fact inclined to evil; we do not love God, and therefore we are under just condemnation to eternal ruin, without defense or excuse. We are guilty of sinning against God, fallen from his favor, and under the curse of Genesis 3, and the promise of his right and just judgment of us in the future and forever is guaranteed to us(“the wages of sin is death,” Rom. 6:23). This is the state from which we need to be saved.